NACIONALNI PARK ĐERDAP/ĐERDAP NATIONAL PARK

Nacionalni park Đerdap se nalazi u jugoistočnoj Evropi, a u Republici Srbiji na granici sa Rumunijom. To je jedinstven rezervat prirode, sjajan spoj vremena i prirode na kopnu i vodi i najveći nacionalni park u našoj zemlji.

Fascinantan i osnovni prirodni fenomen ovog naciponalnog parka je grandiozna Đerdapska klisura kroz koju teče moćna reka Dunav. Područje Đerdapske klisure nacionalnim parkom je proglašeno 1974. godine.

GolubacGolubac:  sr.wikipedia.org/

Nacionalni park Đerdap  se prostire na  63.608 ha, a sa zaštitnom zonom na 93.968 ha. Zauzima  oko 100 km desne obale Dunava od Golupca do Karataša, koja je brdsko- planinski pojas širine 2- 8  km, bogat šumom.

Dolina Dunava u ovom parku obuhvata tri kanjonsko-klisurske doline i to:

  • Golubačka, dugačka 14,5 km, najmanje širine 230 m;
  • Gospođin Vir, dužine 15 km, najmanje širine 220 m;
  • Kanjon Velikog i Malog Kazana dužine 19 km, najmanje širine 150 m.

Zbog složene mreže klisura, kanjona i dubokih uvala,  prostor ovoga parka izdvaja se kao jedinstven evropski rezervat tercijarne flore i faune.

Flora se odlikuje  raznovrsnošću, bogatstvom i izrazitim reliktnim karakterom. Na prostoru parka identifikovano je  preko 1100 biljnih vrsta. Fauna parka, također, nosi obeležje reliktnosti.

Gvozdena vrata su još jedan prirodni fenomen i  atrakcija. To su vrata između donjeg i srednjeg Podunavlja.

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BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity is the overall diversity of form and function of plant and animal species, between species, between different species and ecosystems.

In order to harmonious co-existence between man and nature, it is Protecting biodiversity means the preservation and restoration of degraded ecosystems, natural habitats and all species of  flora and fauna.
Sustainable
use of the rational use of natural resources, which does not cause degradation of biodiversity, and maintain that level of biodiversity resources, which meets the needs of present and future generations.
Genetic diversity
means diversity of species on the planet and the genetic information of all kinds of living beings, characterized by a specific, unique genetic combinations.
Species diversity
is the total number of organic species in all ecosystems on the planet since the beginning of life.
Ecosystem diversity
is the total diversity of habitats and flora and fauna and ecological processes in the biosphere.

Previous experience in the protection of biodiversity have shown that without adequate habitat protection  no adequate protection of biodiversity on the species and genetic level. Therefore, concepts for the protection of habitat allocated bidoiverziteta as the basic unit of protection.

Habitat is a community of plants, animals and other members Biocenoses, which together with abiotic factors (soil, climate, water quantity and quality, etc..) represents a single functional unit.

The main documents that define the fundamental elements in the protection of habitat are:

  • Berne Convention – Council of Europe, Bern, 1972.;
  • Convention on Biological Diversity – CBD – UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.;
  • H Habitat directives –

Autor: MPG71


BIODIVERZITET I ZDRAVLJE LJUDI

Tim britanskih i američkih istraživača je upozorio da je gubitak biodiverziteta  zabrinjavajući  zbog mogućeg negativnog uticaja na zdravlje ljudi. Utvrđena je povezanost između smanjenja broja biljnih i životinjskih vrsta u  ekosistemima na Zemlji i povećanja broja patogenih mikroorganizama koji izazivaju bolesti.

U naučnom časopisu „Nejčer” objavljeni su rezultati istraživanja, koji su pokazali da flora i fauna, koje nestaju,  često predstavljaju barijeru za razvoj zaraznih bolesti.

Uredio: MPG71

FLORA AND FAUNA – GOLIJA

Flora

Golija is  characterized by diverse living world. This is our most forested mountains, with the largest and best preserved, the finest forest complexes. This space boasts mountain forest. Some parts of these forests have the character of the rainforest. Dominated by beech trees. The southern slopes are covered with Golija vast meadows and pastures. The spruce forests were preserved peat as a specific and sensitive ecosystems.

Botanical significant areas are preserved on Golija deciduous and deciduous-coniferous forest primeval type, and forest conifers, especially spruce subalpijske. The mountain is covered by forest Golija pure deciduous stands (beech, oak), pure stands of conifers (spruce, fir) and mixed deciduous and conifer forests in different combinations composed of beech, spruce and fir.

Above 1700 m is present only spruce. Below the waist belt of spruce is mixed, beech-fir and beech forests smrčevih. Beech forest in the northern, northeastern and eastern exposures. The largest area under the beech is in Crni Vrh. Highland Beech range is wide, from 500 to 1000 m above sea level. Below the Belt is a belt of beech, oak.

Among the rarities preserved natural Golija allocated relict and endemic woody species of maple (Acer heldreichi), which is synonymous with the flora Golija. Most beautiful and highest quality communities with dense populations of mountain maple are the most significant is Goliji.Poseban floristic and holly (Ilex aquiifolium), and endemic species: Allysum Markgraf, Allysum jancheni, Pancicia serbica, Viola elegantula and Verascum adamovicii. Pančićeva anthrax (Pancicia serbica ) and Adamovic thyme (Thymus adamovic) species are of international importance for biodiversity conservation and have the characteristics of local endemics.

Floristic biodiversity Golija has 900 taxa of flora , of which 729 species of vascular fungi, 40 species of moss, 117 species and varieties of algae. Of special significance in the flora are endemic and relict species, and species that have become endangered.

Fauna

 It is a great ornithological importance for biodiversity conservation Golija birds. So far the Goliji recorded 45 species of birds, belonging to a group of natural rarities. It was registered about 90 species of birds candidate for the Red Book of birds of Serbia.

Author: MPG71