MORSKA OSA (CHIRONEX FLECKERI)

Morska osa je mala meduza, koja se može pronaći u vodama oko Australije i jugoistočne Azije.

Zovu je i morskom zoljom. Providna je kao i voda u kojoj boravi te ju je skoro nemoguće opaziti. Mnogi je smatraju jednom od tri najsmrtonosnijih životinja. Ova mala meduza je ubila više ljudi nego napadi morskih pasa, krokodila i kamen-riba, tvrde naučnici. Njen ubod je toliko bolan da se većina žrtava utopi ili umre od srčanog infarkta. Ubitačni otrov morske ose napada nervni sistem, srce i mišićno tkivo.

Uredio: MPG71

PLAVO-PRSTENASTA HOBOTNICA (HAPALOCHLAENA LUNULATA)

Plavo-prestenasta hobotnica se može naći od Japana do Australije. Veličine je loptice za golf, ali njen otrov je je toliko jak da može da ubije 26 odraslih ljudi u roku od jedne minute. Njen ugriz je neosetan, jer je bezbolan i izgleda bezopasno. Međutim, odmah počinju simptomi: slabost mišića, utrnulost nakon čega dolazi do prestanka disanja i na kraju smrti. Mogu se naći od Japana do Australije.

Uredio: MPG71

NAJOTROVNIJE ŽIVOTINJE NA ZEMLJI

 Brazilski pauk lutalica (Phoneutria nigriventer)

Škorpija (Leiurus quinquestriatus)

Moljac lenji klovn  (Lonomnia  obliqua)   

                           Kraljevska kobra (Ophiophagus hannah)


Crna mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis)

Kontinentalni taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus)

Azurna podrevnica (Dendrobates Azureus)


Žaba strelica (Dendrobates pumilio)

Morska osa (Chironex fleckeri)

 Kamena riba ( Synanceja verrucosa)

Mermerni kupasti puž (Conus marmoreus)


Plavo-prstenasta hobotnica (Hapalochlaena lunulata)

Redosled fotografija najotrovnijih životinja urađen je bez pretenzija da se odredi, koja je od njih najotrovnija.

Uredio: MPG71


 

INSEKTI NA TRPEZI

Evropska unija je sa tri miliona evra finansirala projekat za promovisanja nutritivne vrednosti insekata u ljudskoj ishrani.


Eksperti u Briselu smatraju da bi insekti uskoro trebalo da postanu sastavni deo trpeze, objavio je britanski list Dejli telegrafa.  Korišćenjem insekata u ishrani ljudi  bili bi rešeni ne samo problemi nestašica hrane, nego bi se na taj način doprinelo i očuvanju životne sredine.

Uredio: MPG71

THE POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES

Agricultural land

Natural pastures and meadows occupy 2/3 of utilised agricultural land and range over the mountain steppe, lengthwise of around 70 km and in width of 8,5-19 km. Although jeopardized by the processes of biological degradation, owing to insufficient utilisation, they dispose with extraordinary ecological and landscape values and economic potential for development of pastoral livestock breeding and production of milk, meat and manufactured products of special quality, resulted in specific geographical features. The most quality land is under vineyards (1,5%) and orchards (2%), in arable valleys, while sparse, but good quality arable land occupy 28%. Small and fragmentized family holdings and slow process of restructuring and privatization of huge land areas in public ownership (44%), along with mountain relief and climate, represent major limitations for productive utilisation of agricultural land (Nikolić, 2008: 48-49).

Population and husbandries

The mountain villages have been affected by strong depopulation and decrease of husbandries number has not been followed by the property enlargement. High rate of activity has been a consequence of inadequate economic, age and educational structure of population on husbandries (table 1).

Table 1. Population and husbandries – basic indicators

 Old M.    area

– total -

Out of that

Urban

Mountain

Other

Agricultural population in total, %

2,4

0,8

15,0

4,8

Households with agricultural sources of income, %

1,9

0,4

10,4

2,8

Husbandries in total households number, %

31,3

22,3

66,3

64,7

Number of husbandries 2002/1991, %

-20,5

-10,3

-31,3

-29,4

Average size of arable land property, ha

1,16

0,83

1,53

1,70

Active in total agricultural population, %

75,9

49,1

87,0

75,7

Individual agricultural producers in population on husbandries, %

95,6

80,0

97,6

93,5

Number of active agricultural producers per 100 ha of UAA

12,6

3,2

24,6

9,8

Source: SORS, Census, 2002.

The owners of husbandries do not realize incomes from agriculture, i.e. in most of cases, they do not even live on husbandry, which implies to a need of diversifying rural activities, in order to return young people to inherited, but abandoned properties and renew the agricultural production by assets earned in additional activities. There is expected that the development of tourism and complementary activities provides staying, return and permanent settlement of younger working population, at least when we talk about rural settlement with tourist functions (Official Gazette of RS, 115/2008).

Livestock and mechanization

The number and structure of livestock is far below the potentials of local feed production base, as well as regarding agro-ecological minimal norms for preservation of natural grassland, and points out to great possibilities of revival and development of mountain pasture livestock breeding (table 2).

razula.cz

Table 2. Livestock – basic indicators

Old M.     Area

  -totally-

Out of that*

 

Urban

Mountain

Other

Number of  livestock units per 100 ha of utilised agricultural area

7,2

54,3

5,6

9,0

Number of  livestock units  per 100 ha of utilised arable area-          totally

-           family farms

13,2

56,1

54,3

21,7

11,1

94,0

13,0

55,5

* The place of living/census does not necessary overlaps with the location of husbandry

Source: SORS, Census, 2002.

The level of mechanization equipment is low, especially in mountain area. One duo-axial tractor cultivates approximately 22 ha of arable land, but along with extremely expressed spatial heterogeneity, so some mountain villages are completely deprived from power machines (SORS, Census 2002). In regard to heterogeneity of natural conditions is necessary a selective approach to the condition improvement in that field, with accentuation on modernization of livestock production by machines for feed transport and storage, as well as for milking and milk storage.

Infrastructure and investments

Poor technical and technological performances of husbandry are accompanied by low infrastructure and public services equipment level, especially in mountain villages. There is expected significant improvement in these fields by realization of planned tourist projects. In 2008, the investments (legal entities) in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishery were absent in the municipalities of Pirot and Dimitrovgrad, while in the city of Zajecar were amounted 35,9 million RSD (84,7 thousand RSD per employee in agriculture, and in Knjazevac municipality 10,3 million RSD (30,5 thousand RSD/employee).

Izvor

1. Николић Марија. (2008). Коришћење пољопривредног земљишта, развој пољопривреде и ревитализација села. Експертиза за потребе израде Просторног плана Парка природе и туристичке регије Стара планина, Институт за архитектуру и урбанизам Србије, Београд

2. SORS, Census, 2002

Autori: Vesna Popović, Marija Nikolić, Branko Katić


THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

The multifunctional model of sustainable agriculture development, which keeps and improves the natural resources and biodiversity and develops production and processing of high quality traditional local products, rural tourism and handicrafts, provide strong support for sustainable tourism development.



The sustainable agriculture in ecologically sensitive areas relies on the traditional methods of production, which ensures high level of ecological rationality, based on the use of local natural resources and knowledge, which carries over from generation to generation (Altieri, 2002).

These production methods represent an excellent base for organizing an integral and organic production of food. Protected geographical indications and regional branding and promotion of the local products and services enable promotion of the area too, which contributes to entrepreneurship development, increase of employment and regional development (Popović et.al, 2009: 57).

Izvori

  1. Altieri A. M. (2002). Traditional Agriculture. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management. University of California, Berkeley, p. 1-13., http://www.cnr. berkeley.edu/~christos/articles/ traditional_ag.html;
  2. Поповић В., Николић М., Живановић-Миљковић Ј., Јовановић Б. (2009). Мултифункционална пољопривреда и рурални развој у медитеранским условима. Институт за економику пољопривреде, стр. 1-210, Београд;

Autori: Vesna Popović, Marija Nikolić, Branko Katić

Introduction – THE ROLE OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA OF STARA PLANINA

The area of the Nature Park and the tourist region “Stara planina” extends to 1542 km2, alongside of  Stara planina massif and sub-mountain surrounding, in northwest-southeast direction, ranging over parts of the municipalities of Dimitrovgrad, Pirot and Knjazevac and the city of Zajecar, in border zone with the Republic of Bulgaria, long around 100 km and wide about 4 km in the north, to 30 km, in the south.


Generally, sparsely populated, this area of remarkable natural values and tourist potential gravitates to the road route of corridor 10 and its branch Niš – Dimitrovgrad – Sofia (E-75 and E-80), to the railway route of corridor 10 – Belgrade – Niš – Sofia and the Niš airport. Together with accession of Bulgaria into the EU and by decision of Serbian Government on significant investments in road and tourist infrastructure, in last few years has dynamically improved an accessibility and investment attractiveness.

According to the potentials and limitations of development, the Spatial Plan of this area defines tourism, agriculture and entrepreneurship as strategic priorities of economic development (“Official Gazette of RS” 115/2008). High ecological sensitivity and present demographic and structural limitations of the area emphasize the significance of sustainable development of these activities, which ensures their mutual support in realization of integral regional development.

The sustainable tourism establishes a balance of ecological, economic and social component of tourist development in realization of the environment protection, the growth of employment and poverty reduction and it is of utmost importance for protected areas. Stara planina was declared for the nature park in 1997 and was on the preliminary list of the UNESCO biosphere reserve (MAB). The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas includes, among the basic principles of tourism development in these areas, the following key issue – “increase of benefits from tourism to the local economy, by: promoting the purchase of local products (food, crafts, local services) by visitors and local tourism businesses, and encouraging the employment of local people in tourism” (www.european-charter.org).

In accordance to the Master Plan of “Stara planina” tourist destination, the development of tourism bases on creation of ski mega resort at the mountain, but also on creation of complete tourist values chain of wider space of Stara planina destination, including the tourism based on nature, culture and rural tourism (MERR, 2007: 73).

Autori: Vesna Popović, Marija Nikolić, Branko Katić

THE ROLE OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL AGRICULTURE IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA OF STARA PLANINA

The area of Nature Park and tourist region “Stara planina” owes the exceptional natural and cultural values on which base current strategic directions of economic development – tourism and agriculture. A significant ecological sensitivity and demographic and structural limitations of the area, emphasizes an importance of these activities sustainable development, which ensures their mutual support in realizing an integral regional development.

The sustainable tourism presumes the development of complementary activities – agriculture, handicrafts and services, by promoting a consumption of local products and services and encouraging the employment of local population in tourism. The sustainable agriculture has multifunctional character and relies on the traditional production methods. The production of high nutrition value food, along with providing services of public interest and developing additional activities, ensures the environment protection and long-term sustainable management with natural resources and contributes to tourism development, employment growth, social cohesion and preservation of tradition and cultural heritage.

Authors: Vesna Popović, Marija Nikolić, Branko Katić   

УЛОГА МУЛТИФУНКЦИОНАЛНЕ ПОЉОПРИВРЕДЕ У РАЗВОЈУ ОДРЖИВОГ ТУРИЗМА НА ПОДРУЧЈУ СТАРЕ ПЛАНИНЕ

Подручје Парка природе и туристичке регије “Стара планина” поседује изузетне природне и културне вредности на којима се темеље актуелни стратешки правци економског развоја – туризам и пољопривреда.

Висока еколошка осетљивост и демографска и структурна ограничења Подручја наглашавају значај одрживог развоја ових делатности, који обезбеђује њихову узајамну потпору у остваривању интегралног регионалног развоја. Одрживи туризам претпоставља развој комплементарних делатности – пољопривреде, занатства и услуга, промовисањем потрошње локалних производа и услуга и охрабривањем запошљавања локалног становништва у туризму. Одржива пољопривреда има мултифункционални карактер и ослања се на традиционалне методе производње. Производњом хране високе биолошке вредности, упоредо са обављањем услуга од јавног интереса и развојем пратећих делатности обезбеђује се заштита животне средине и дугорочно одрживо газдовање природним ресурсима, пружа потпора развоју туризма и доприноси расту запослености, остваривању социјалне кохезије и очувању традиције и културног наслеђа.  

Autori: Весна Поповић, Марија Николић, Б.Катић

RAKIJE I ALKOHOLNA PIĆA – REGULISANJE PROIZVODNJE I PROMETA

Srbija na relativno malom prostoru ima prirodne uslove za gajenje svih vrsta kontinentalnog voća i viševekovnu tradiciju proizvodnje rakije od voća i grožđa.

Proizvodnjom alkoholnih pića se bavi veliki broj proizvođača.

Obaveznim upisom u Registar proizvođača rakije i drugih alkoholnih pića sprečava se nelegalna proizvodnja i promet, eliminiše proizvodnja falsifikata i omogućava kontrola celog procesa proizvodnje počev (od osnovnih sirovina do konačnog proizvoda upakovanog u bocu) i praćenje svih puteva alkohola.

Pravilnik o izmenama i dopunama Pravilnika o kategorijama, kvalitetu i deklarisanju rakije i drugih alkoholnih pića stupio je na snagu 24.9.2011. godine. Donošenjem Pravilnika će se omogućiti da se preciznije reguliše proizvodnja i promet rakije i drugih alkoholnih pića.

Izvor

  1. Pravilnik o izmenama i dopunama Pravilnika o kategorijama, kvalitetu i deklarisanju  rakije i drugih alkoholnih pića                           (“Službeni glasnik RS”, broj 70/2011)

Uredio: MPG71