Golija is characterized by diverse living world. This is our most forested mountains, with the largest and best preserved, the finest forest complexes. This space boasts mountain forest. Some parts of these forests have the character of the rainforest. Dominated by beech trees. The southern slopes are covered with Golija vast meadows and pastures. The spruce forests were preserved peat as a specific and sensitive ecosystems.
Botanical significant areas are preserved on Golija deciduous and deciduous-coniferous forest primeval type, and forest conifers, especially spruce subalpijske. The mountain is covered by forest Golija pure deciduous stands (beech, oak), pure stands of conifers (spruce, fir) and mixed deciduous and conifer forests in different combinations composed of beech, spruce and fir.
Above 1700 m is present only spruce. Below the waist belt of spruce is mixed, beech-fir and beech forests smrčevih. Beech forest in the northern, northeastern and eastern exposures. The largest area under the beech is in Crni Vrh. Highland Beech range is wide, from 500 to 1000 m above sea level. Below the Belt is a belt of beech, oak.
Among the rarities preserved natural Golija allocated relict and endemic woody species of maple (Acer heldreichi), which is synonymous with the flora Golija. Most beautiful and highest quality communities with dense populations of mountain maple are the most significant is Goliji.Poseban floristic and holly (Ilex aquiifolium), and endemic species: Allysum Markgraf, Allysum jancheni, Pancicia serbica, Viola elegantula and Verascum adamovicii. Pančićeva anthrax (Pancicia serbica ) and Adamovic thyme (Thymus adamovic) species are of international importance for biodiversity conservation and have the characteristics of local endemics.
Floristic biodiversity Golija has 900 taxa of flora , of which 729 species of vascular fungi, 40 species of moss, 117 species and varieties of algae. Of special significance in the flora are endemic and relict species, and species that have become endangered.
It is a great ornithological importance for biodiversity conservation Golija birds. So far the Goliji recorded 45 species of birds, belonging to a group of natural rarities. It was registered about 90 species of birds candidate for the Red Book of birds of Serbia.