THE POTENTIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF HEALTHY-SAFE FOOD IN THE NP „ĐERDAP“

 The national park Djerdap is located in north-east part of the Republic of Serbia, along the border with Romania. Djerdap gorge cuts the slopes of South-Carpathian Mountains – Miroč, Liskovac and Šomrda, while the park, as a whole, belongs to Carpathian area. It stretches on 636 km2 of municipalities Golubac, Majdanpek and Kladovo territories, ranging over 2-8 km of hilly-mountainous belt along the Danube, altitude 50-800 m, as well as the very surface of the Danube, around 55 km2. The protecting zone ranges over around 934 km2 in hinterland of the park, on the territory of the municipalities: Golubac, Majdanpek, Kladovo, Kučevo and Negotin (Figure 1).

Figure1.  Area of the NP „Djerdap“and its protecting zone

The national park „Djerdap“ has extraordinary natural and cultural-historical values, which nominate it for the list of the world’s cultural and natural legacy (UNESCO) and UNESCO MAB biosphere conservation area.

The park area and its protecting zone is relatively spatially isolated and sparsely populated (26,8 inhabitants/km2). Major parts of agricultural areas are within the protecting zone of the national park (about 25,5 thousand hectares), where special conservation regulations are not obligatory, except general requirement not to jeopardize the park’s fundamental functions. There is around 13 thousand hectares of agricultural land within bounds of the park, out of which around 1,9 thousand hectares are in the regime of II protection level and around 10,9 thousand ha in the regime of III protection level. On the territory in II protection level regime has been allowed primary agricultural production, including livestock breeding, while in zone of III protection level has been possible to build also food processing capacities and run small-scale businesses that fulfill environmental protection regulations (Official Gazette of RS, 16/2009: 121, 126; 34/1989: 1256).

Small-scale semi-subsistence farms prevail on the area. The most of farm inhabitants are quite old and poor educated. The arable lands stretch on 20 thousand hectares and mainly have weak productive potentials for crop growing, but they are favourable for orchards and grassland i.e. for grazing cattle, sheep and goats, production of medicinal herbs and bee keeping. The area encompasses also parts of Kljuc and Negotin viticulture region, with great relief, micro-climate and pedologic conditions and centuries-old tradition in wine production.

Heterogeneous natural conditions offer significant reserves for development of the production in systems of traditional, integral and organic agriculture. Rural hinterland disposes with ecologically safe locations for small and medium enterprises development and processing healthy, high quality food, especially milk and meat products. The tourist potential of the park provides a market for wide assortment of traditional local products, including wine of protected geographic indication and offers possibility to agricultural producers for diversification (rural tourism, handicrafts, trade…).

The research, carried out in 2009, for the needs of making the Spatial Plan of Special Purpose Area of National Park „Djerdap“, have shown that, in this area, depending on heterogeneous natural, resource, technical-technological and socio-economic conditions, could successfully develop next modalities of sustainable, multifunctional agriculture, targeting the (Nikolić, Popović, 2010):

1) Biodiversity maintenance – in protected hilly-mountain area of II and III protection level regime within the national park. Farmers in this area have been primarily directed toward the conservation of grassland eco-systems and use of natural conditions for grazing of cattle, sheep and goats (the territory of cadastral municipalities of: Tekija, Petrovo Selo, Golubinje, Miroč, Dobra and Brnjica), along with organic fruit production (Boljetin, Topolnica, Mosna, Miroč), rare kinds of wheat production (millet, buckwheat, etc), bee keeping and game breeding.

Agro-environment compensations to farmers for damages/damages prevention on crops and livestock, and lost income owing to the production extensification, i.e. changing the purpose of arable land in plots for feeding and habitats are of special interest for the protection of endangered species, endemic species and big carnivorous in the park area. Growing of game fodder, extensive maintenance of meadows and pastures and old orchards, besides the species and eco-system biodiversity protection, can have important associated functions of land preservation and population density of the area.

High quality organic food (meat and milk products, fruit, honey, fish and game…) should be protected with indications of origin and then directed to local catering trade, tourist businesses and ethno-events, strengthening rural and eco-tourism development on farms (Miroč, Tekija, Novi Sip) and in rural settlements of high ambient values (Golubinje, Petrovo Selo).

2) Integral vine and crop-livestock production development – in Ključ lowland (CM of: Davidovac, Kladovo, Kladušnica, Manastirica, Podvrška, Velika Kamenica) and hilly fringes of Negotin lowland (CM of Urovica and Vratna), on east, and in the CM of Golubac, in west part of the area.

The best quality vineyards are located in Ključ viticulture region, but the largest plantations stretch the hills of Negotin lowland. For centuries-old tradition in production of high quality wine represents one of the key tourist products in master plan of Donje Podunavlje tourist destination. It says that „rural – wine pastoral of Negotinska Krajina, with unique wine-houses („pimnice“) and wine resorts, offers a vacation and enjoyment in pastoral ambient, activities and recreation and rural tourism“ (Government of the RS, 2007:17). Successful adjustment of grape and wine production to the requirements of market competitiveness enhancement has been conditioned by assortment modernization and the production and processing improvements. The promotion of the integral grape and wine production system can significantly contribute to these achievements.

On the arable lands of Ključ it is possible to organize integral or organic production of crops and vegetables. Large areas of meadows and pastures of north fringes of Negotin municipality offer great conditions for cattle and sheep breeding and the production of traditional meat and milk product of high nutritional value. The hilly territory of Urovica are favourable for development of fruit production, too, especially autochthonous sorts of apple and soft fruits (strawberries, raspberries, blackberries), which production happens to find increased interest of the farmers. Good potentials also have growing of medicinal herbs and bee keeping, while large territories under forest are rich with indigenous medicinal herbs, mushrooms and other wild fruits.

3) Traditional fruit and livestock production development – in central, hilly-mountain part of the park’s protecting zone, in which dominate the orchards (CM of: Voluja, Rudna Glava, Radenka, Dvorište) and meadows and pastures (CM of: Radenka, Voluja, Rudna Glava, Krivača), except CM of Majdanpek, sparsely populated and mostly covered by forest, with problems concerning land degradation by mining works, which requires remediation.

The modern fruit production sets complex requirements in natural resources use. On one side, the optimal conditions for realization of high and stable productivity results have to be provided by appropriate agro-technical and pomo-technical practices, but, on the other side, these practices must not be harmful for the environment. This can be achieved by strictly implementation of integrated plant nutrition and pest management. The attention must be given to reintroduction of old, autochthonous sorts, especially favourable for growing orchards on low productive land.

The livestock production should direct toward cattle, sheep and goats pasturing. The farmers should be motivated to expand herds by budgetary support, and especially to fulfill the food quality and safety standards, by purchase of modern equipment for manure storage, fodder storage, as well as storing and cooling milk.

The preferential projects for efficient use of the whole area potentials for production of healthy-safe and high quality food are: mini-abattoirs for lambs; mini-dairies for processing sheep and goat milk; fruit processing plants; mini-drying rooms and packing machines for fruit, honey, medicinal herbs and wild fruits; livestock breeders, fruit growers and wine growers associations development, as carriers of the traditional products origin mark;  and development of catering and tourist activities on farms.

Autori: Marija Nikolić,  Vesna Popović

DOMOVI HOBITA NA NOVOM ZELANDU

Na padinama Matamata na Novom Zelandu nalazi se naselje s originalnim kučicama, koje su trebale da posluže kao domovi Hobita za snimanje filma Gospodar prstenova.

Naselje je danas prava turistička atrakcija, na kojoj se mogu videti ovce, koje uživaju na lepim padinama.

U naselju Hobita tiristi uživaju u prelepom pogledu i netaknutoj prirodi.

Uredio: MPG71

LENJI KLOVN (LONOMIA OBLIQUA)

Lenji klovn je mala životinjica, koja živi u Brazilu.

Ova gusenica je ekstremno otrovna. Opasna je samo u stadijumu gusenic, dok moljac, koji se izleže nje nije otrovan.  Njeno dlakavo telo  na dodir ubrizga u čoveka dovoljnu količinu toksina da ga usmrti. Svake godine Lenji klovn ubije na desetine ljudi u ovoj zemlji. Krvarenja u mozgu su vodeći uzrok smrti kod pacijenata otrovanih toksinom ove gusenice.

Uredio: MPG71

AZURNA PODREVNICA (DENDROBATES AZUREUS)

Azurna podrevnica živi u savani Sipaliwini, južnom predelu Surinamija i u Brazilu.

Danas je naučnici smatraju najotrovnijim kičmenjakom na Zemlji. Koža ove sitne žabe izlučuje toliko  jak neurotoksin da je doza od svega dva mikrograma dovoljna da usmrti odraslog čoveka. Naziva se i modri čudež, ali i žaba otrovnih strelica pošto su domoroci koristili njen otrov za vrhove svojih strela.

Uredio: MPG71

SEDAM NOVIH SVETSKIH ČUDA PRIRODE

Sedam novih čuda proride su:

Amazonska prašuma

Zaliv Halong u Vijetnamu

Vodopadi Igazu u Brazilu

Ostrvo Jeju u Južnoj Koreji

Nacionalni park Komodo u Indoneziji

Podzemna reka Porto Princeza na Filipinima

Planina Tejbl (Ravna planina) u Južnoj Africi

Dana 11. 11. 2011.  u 11 sati i 11 minuta izglasano je sedam novih svetskih čuda prirode. To su preliminarni rezultati, a  zvanični će biti objavljeni početkom naredne godine, nakon provere svih glasova.

U finale je ušlo 28 čuda prirode, između ostalih lokacija, i Veliki kanjon, Koralni greben u Australiji, Kilimandžaro i Vezuv.

Uredio: MPG71

TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

High level of biological diversity, characteristic for the protected areas and their surroundings, contributes to exchange of genetic material between crops and their wild relatives, enhancing in-situ conservation.

The orientation toward local sorts, adjusted to climatic, pedologic and hydrological conditions of the climate, contributes to the protection of species agro-biodiversity. Numerous small plots under various plant cultures, separated by cultivated grassland belts, hedges, terraces and ditches, alleys and groves, form a mosaic look of the landscape and provide habitats and eco-corridors to protected plant and animal species. Taking care about these elements of biodiversity and landscape is of great importance for the whole society.

The traditional methods of land cultivation, which include conservation techniques like a crop rotation, grow of catch crops, mulching, fallows, sustainable use of meadows and pastures and recycling of inputs in combined, plant-livestock production, contribute to soil protection from degradation and increase of organic matter content.  For centuries lasting experience in combining a large number of cultures, which have simultaneously or successively grown on small plots, including agro-forestry, in surrounding of wild plant populations, have ensured biological protection from plant diseases and pests, and existence and development of organisms (soil micro-organisms, predators, pollinators), which furthermore support a biomass production and increase fertility and productivity of agro-ecosystem (Louwagie, 2009: VIII-X; Altieri, 2002: 4, 8). The natural and income-based restrictions limit the application of heavy mechanization and chemical inputs in the production; therefore the traditional agriculture provides soil protection and an excellent basis for healthy-safe food production, applying the method of integral and organic production

The preservation of the products’ and the production traditional methods’ local characteristics, which have been the base for defining, so called, specific or higher quality, can be achieved by protection of geographic origin of the product or production method (Protected Designation of Origin – PDO, Protected Geographical Indication – PGI, or Traditional Speciality Guaranteed – TSG). Such aspect of marketing strategy, based on differentiation and production for market niches, provides significantly higher market prices. The engagement concerning certification, promotion and quality control requires a chain link of business entities, which contributes to improvement of the production and assurance of income, especially when it comes to small producers. The traditional gastronomic offer, in original natural and cultural-historical surrounding, provides great possibilities for development of catering, rural tourism, handcraft and home crafts.

Relating the origin of the product for specific area, alongside with development of specific competitive advantages and promotion of the products, results in the promotion of the area itself, which significantly contribute to development of entrepreneurship, increase of employment and rural development as the whole.

Autori: Marija Nikolić,  Vesna Popović

SVETSKI DAN KVALITETA I EVROPSKA NEDELJA KVALITETA

Svetski dan kvaliteta obeležava se tradicionalno u mnogim državama, a Evropska nedelja kvaliteta u čitavoj Evropi.

U Beogradu će se i ove 2011. godine prikladno obeležiti Svetski dan kvaliteta i Evropska nedelja kvaliteta.  Pod pokroviteljstvom Ministarstva ekonomije i regionalnog razvoja Republike Srbije organizatori su: Fond za kulturu kvaliteta i izvrsnost – FQCE i Poslovna politika a.d.

Dobitnik ovogodišnje nagrade Srbije za poslovnu izvrsnost “Oskar kvaliteta 2011″ u kategoriji velikih preduzeća je Tehnički remontni zavod Kragujevac, a u kategoriji malih i srednjih preduzeća Podrum vina Aleksandrović.

Od 07. do 12. novembra 2011. godine na Univerzitetu Singidunum tradicionalno će biti obeleženi Svetski dan kvaliteta i Evropska nedelja kvaliteta; biće organizovana prikladna predavanja i radionice stručnjaka iz privrede i studenata ovoga Univerziteta.

Konferencija Evropska nedelja kvaliteta u Srbiji je održana 9. i 10. novembra 2011. godine na Fakultetu tehničkih nauka u Novom Sadu. Organizatori su Jedinstveno udruženje Srbije za kvalitet (JUSK) i fakultet.

Uredio: MPG71

BRAZILSKI PAUK LUTALICA (PHONEUTRIA NIGRIVENTER)

Brazilski pauk lutalica je najotrovniji pauk, a zaslužan je za najviše smrtnih slučajeva prouzrokovanih paukovim ugrizom. Njegov neurotoksin je izuzetno jak.

Ovaj pauk je veoma znatiželjan pa često dolazi u dodir sa čovekom. Mada živi u Brazilu, često se događa da „otputuje“ i u daleke krajeve planete sa pošiljkama banana.

Njegov je ugriz jako bolan.  Osim  toga, ugriz ovog pauka uzrokuje prijapizam. Posle toga otkrića usledila su brojna istraživanja  uticaja njegovog otrova na  lečenja impotencije.

Uredio: MPG71

INTRODUCTION – THE POSSIBILITY OF HEALTHY-SAFE FOOD PRODUCTION IN PROTECTED AREAS

According to definition of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the protected area is „a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values“ (IUCN, 2008). In context of this definition, the conservation of nature represents a basic goal and in case of conflict of interests, it has a priority. It implies in-situ maintenance of biodiversity (genetic, species and ecosystem), geo-diversity and other natural values, i.e. the preservation of ecosystems and natural and semi-natural habitats and species in their natural surroundings.

Fotografija preuzeta sa: http://www.npdjerdap.org/

Associated eco-system services comprise: water and food supply; protection from floods and drought; prevention from land degradation and spreading of diseases; improvement of soil fertility; satisfaction of recreational, spiritual and religious needs and other non-material benefits (Dudley, 2008: 8-10).
The basic benefits from protected areas result from their values and services, which enable sustainable use of land in agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishery; development of sustainable tourism and traffic; increase of employment and providing healthy and productive life. It makes a base of sustainable rural and regional development, contributing to development of regional and national identity (Ostermann, 2009: 11).

Fotografija preuzeta sa: http://www.npdjerdap.org/

The use of agricultural land in protected areas requires integral management of natural resources, in a way to ensure the environment and landscapes protection and conservation of flora and fauna and their habitats, on principles of sustainable agricultural and rural development (SARD), which „is environmentally non-degrading, technologically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable“ (Crowley et al., 2007: 2).

Sustainable agriculture in ecologically – sensitive areas leans on traditional methods of production, which have been resulted by „co-evolution of local social and environmental systems and that exhibit a high level of ecological rationale expressed through the intensive use of local knowledge and natural resources, which have been handed down from generation to generation, including the management of agro-biodiversity“ (Altieri, 2002). This „microcosm of rural inheritance“ ensures cultural and ecological services, not only to a local population, but also to a human kind in general, by preserving traditional knowledge and skills in land cultivation, autochthonous plant varieties and animal breeds and authentic socio-cultural organization (Altieri, 2004).

The scientists nowadays, when solving modern problems in production and protection of natural resources and environment, turn more often to wealthy funds of ethno-ecologists from which they gather centuries-old knowledge about soil and water protection, biodiversity conservation, climate and natural cycles, healthy nutrition and spiritual balance and symbiosis between a man and nature.

Izvori

  1. Altieri A. M.: Traditional Agriculture. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management. University of California, Berkeley, p. 1-13., 2002, http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/~christos/articles/ traditional_ag.html;
  2.  Altieri A. M.: „Linking ecologists and traditional farmers in the search for sustainable agriculture“. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment: Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 35-42, 2004, http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002%5B0035:LEATFI% 5D2.0. CO%3B2
  3.  Dudley, N., ed.: Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, x + 86pp. Gland, Switzerland, 2008, http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/ edocs/PAPS-016.pdf
  4. Crowley, E., Mahler, J.P., Kueneman, E., Aldington, T., Koohafkan, P., Price, T., Neely, C., Legros, D., Dejene, A.: History of SARD at FAO, FAO, p. 1-12, 2007, ftp://ftp.fao.org/SD/SDA/SDAR/sard/History%20of%20SARD%20at%20FAO.pdf
  5. Ostermann, O.:  „Overview of benefits, values and services of protected areas“. In S. Stolton, ed. Communicating values and benefits of protected areas in Europe. BfN and EUROPARC Federation, p. 9-11. Island of Vilm, Germany, 2009

Autori: Marija Nikolić,  Vesna Popović