PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION POLYPHENOLS


Phenolic acids The antimicrobial activity of honey has been found that present potentially significant phenolic acids (Aziz et, 1998). Animal studies and in vitro studies show that ferulna acids can have positive effects in curing breast cancer (Kamp and associates., 2004) and liver cancer (Lee YS, 2004). P-coumarin acid is a dietary antioxidant and hemoprotektant (Torres and Rosazza, 2005). Gallic acid and its methyl esters exert an inhibitory effect on several very dangerous intestinal bacteria (Jones et, 1994), and six other simple phenolic acids was found to be active against various bacteria and molds (Ahn et, 1998). Ferulna brown acid acid intake increased Ca 2 + into the cell. Tannic acid was tested with different concentrations and showed a significant effect on growth rates decline Pectobacterium chrysanthemi; 91% inhibition has been shown to koncentracijijom than 200 mg / ml (Zaidi et al., 2008). This phenolic exhibits antimutagenic properties and antitumorogene (Mukhtar et al., 1988).

Fenilpropeni – According to the observations of some authors fenilpropen miristicin is effective in small quantities, but in larger doses may appear toxic; narcotically effects, liver damage, severe contraction and elevated tone (Vladimir-Knezevic).

Coumarins – coumarins absorb UV radiation, reduce the permeability of the walls of capillaries and lymphatic vessels, reduce exudation and edema formation (anti-inflammatory action), glomerular filtration step up and act as diuretics. Dikumarolsprečava blood coagulation.

Hormones – hormones have a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Acting cytotoxic, anticancer, HIV inhibitory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiiflamatorno, laxative, imunostimulatorno against ulcers, as an antioxidant. Certain hormones are effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and others. (Kumar and Yusuf, 2006).

Antrahinoni – Antrahinoni from the lichen Caloplaca Schaerer showed pronounced antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas and Candida species of fungi, Trichoderma, Aspergillus and Penicillium (Manojlovic and Sukdolak, 2002). Antrahinonski derivatives isolated from drug antrahinonske Frangula Alnus Mill. and two species of lichen genus Xanthoria, as well as their extracts exhibited a significant antifungal activity. In some cases, lichens showed significantly greater activity of the tested drugs (Manojlovic et al., 2001). Antrahinoni tested showed a wide range of antifungal activity and selective activity against certain types of phytopathogenic bacteria (Manojlovic et al., 2000). They regulate the transport of metabolites through the intestinal wall, leads to water retention in the intestine and increased „draws“ from the surrounding tissue. Effect on nerve endings, affecting motility and peristalsis of the colon. The combination of these two effects are manifested laksantnim action. Antrahinonska compounds have antibacterial and antiviral activity; drugs containing free antrahinone or their heterozide, are used as antiseptics and keratoplastici in dermatological preparations. In laboratory confirmed mutagenic activity and cytotoxicity of these compounds, potential for antitumor activity.

Naftohinoni – Naftohinoni the antimicrobial agent, and prevent the development of protozoa. Due to the nucleophilic properties causing mutations and cytotoxic effect; naftohinona this activity has not adequately exploited for therapeutic purposes. Polyphenols dihidroksiantrahinoni 1.8-irritating effect on the smooth muscle, and are used as laksantivna funds, and 1, 2 (1.3) – dihidroksiantrahinoniused, albeit rarely, to break up oxalate deposits in the urinary tract.

Xanthones – Xanthones are high-quality bioactive antioxidants that strengthen the inter-cellular communication, even within the brain and are known as antioxidants, which help in forming a rapid response immune system.

Stilbenes – It was found that resveratrol made ​​a number of potentially cardioprotective effects in vitro, including inhibition of platelet aggregation. Prevents the spread of breast cancer cells, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreas and thyroid. Researchers at the University of Alabama, investigated and found that resveratrol helps reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer in over 80% of the tested mice, which are added to food resveratrol. French paradox refers to the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary disease, although a diet rich in saturated fats. The explanation for this phenomenon is most frequently konzimuranje regular red wine. Several studies have shown that moderate consumption of wine is associated with a lower percentage of occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease. Authors Blass and Gordon (2004) have shown positive effects of application of glucose, malate and resveratrol in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. There are sitraživanja, which challenge the positive effects of this stilbene in the prevention and treatment of certain health problems.

Fenilpropeni – According to the observations of some authors fenilpropen miristicin is effective in small quantities, but in larger doses may appear toxic; narcotically effects, liver damage, severe contraction and elevated tone (Vladimir-Knezevic).

 

Flavonoids – For centuries, preparations containing flavonoids , the main active constituents of preparations for the treatment of disease. The healing properties of propolis have been mentioned from the Old Testament, and it is copied and Hippocrates (460-377 BC) in ancient Greece for treating wounds and ulcers. For the antimicrobial properties of propolis are responsible flavonoids galangin and pinocembrin (Grange et al., 1990). Different flavonoids exhibit antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimutagenic, antiviral, antineoplastic, anti-thrombotic properties and vazodilatorne (Fine, 2000). It has been shown that the antimicrobial activity of flavonoids result of their ability to create complexes with extracellular and soluble proteins and the bacterial cell wall. Puupponen-Pimi et al., (2001) have found broad antimicrobial activity of the tested flavonoids in relation to the Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli.

Flavonoids are synthesized in plants in response to microbial infection and have in vitro antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. Most have tested antibacterial and antifungal properties, was identified, and some antiviral activity of these components (et Chabot, 1992). They are active in chronic inflammatory and allergic diseases. Flavonoids increase Ca2 + entry into the cell.

Demonstrate a specific effect of protection in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, epidemiological studies indicate that flavonoids have a protective effect against the development of these diseases (Ness and Powles, 1997). Pharmacological activity of flavonoids is associated with their actions on the wall of the blood vessels peripheral circulation, reduce permeability and fragility, and increase elasticity and tone of the main wall of capillaries. The effect of flavonoids on blood vessels can be explained by their ability to, as a proton donor, preventing reduction dehidroaskorbinske acid, thus protecting the vitamin C. Another explanation is that these natural polyphenols inhibit enzymes (elastase, and hylauronidase katehol-O-methyltransferase) and slowing the breakdown of elastin. Flavonoids inhibit the enzyme phosphodiesterase, and reduce platelet aggregation, and are used in prophylaxis and therapy as an additional diseases associated with the occurrence of thrombosis. Proven evident inhibition of LDL oxidation and formation of blood clots action of flavonoids and regular use of food and drinks, which contain flavonoids, can provide protection against atherosclerosis and tendency to thrombosis (Mojţošová et, 2001). The author of numerous studies showed that intake of flavonoids is inversely proportional to mortality from coronary disease and that higher intake of quercetin has a positive effect on the cutback of mortality from coronary disease and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, and reduced the incidence of cerebrovascular disease when the increase in food intake kaempherol, naringenin and hisperidina. Although research confirms the biological effects of flavonoids as antioxidants, available results obtained in cell culture suggest that many biological effects of flavonoids associated with a change in cell signaling pathways (Williams et, 2004). According to (Manach et al., 2004) is most pronounced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids. Thistle extract (Silybum marianum) Silymarin contains the active component, which includes four flavonoids, of which silibinin is the main. Animal experiments show that Silymarin has antioxidant properties and prevents proređenje glutathione and hepatic dysfunction.

Most epidemiological studies have proven that regular intake of flavonoids significantly reduces the incidence of tumors and tumor cell growth. Kuntz et al. (1999) examined the impact of 30 selected flavonoid compounds on the proliferation of bowel cancer and proved that all the flavonoids tested showed concentration dependent antiproliferative effect of cytotoxic effects of unaccompanied.

Flavonols The flavonol quercetin was found to have a spasmolytic effect on smooth muscle aortin rats (Morales et al., 1994), which may explain the antagonistic action of calcium. Quercetin is a good anti-inflammatory agent. It blocks the first few stages of the inflammatory process, eg. blocking the synthesis and release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation (Mikulandra ). It has been shown that quercetin, ramnetin izoramnetin and reduce the concentration of cholesterol in serum and liver and getting angoiprotektivni effect (Igarashi and Ohmuma, 1995). According istraživačina quercetin is effective in preventing heart disease, and has an anticancer effect.

Flavanolscatechin and catechin derivatives, oligomer proanthocyanidins, isolated from ginkgo flavonoglikozidi, quercetin, and others, are used in the prevention and treatments of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, liver diseases and cataracts. Galokatehini are active against G (+) and G (-) bacteria. Catechins in tea, particularly (+)-galokatehin and (-)-epigallocatechin, inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, that cause dental caries. In addition to these bacterial species, catechins inhibit in vitro Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella and other bacteria and microorganisms (Toda et, 1989). Epigallocatechin has antibacterial activity against the Staphylococcus epidermidis (G +), Proteus vulgaris (G-) and S. aureus (G +). Catechin isolated from Camellia sinensis, the effect on Shigella spp. In a non-toxic concentrations (Vijaya et, 1995). Epigallocatechin gallate may prevent the formation of amiloidnih fibrils, which are associated with the development of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

 

Halkoni Halkoni are characterized by a wide range of pharmacological activities. They act as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-ulcer, insecticidal, antiprotozoalno against cancer, cytotoxic and immunosuppressive (Jamal et al., 2009).

Anthocyanins – anthocyans have antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects (Rossi et al., 2003). They also can improve the nutritional value of foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins of food products. The effect of anthocyanins is closely the influence of other types of flavonoid heterozida so that they reduce permeability and increase elasticity and tone of the main wall of capillaries. Such effects are caused by inhibition of proteolytic enzymes and increase in the proportion of collagen and elastin in the walls of blood vessels. Specifically, the anthocyanins is their beneficial effect on the regeneration of visual purple (Savic, 1983). Cherry anthocyanins block inflammatory enzymes, thus reducing the sensation of pain, especially caused by arthritis.Twenty cherries have 10 times more effective than aspirin.

 

Procijanidini – Procijanidini inhibit growth (G-) bacteria, Pseudomonas maltophilia (Waage et, 1984). They act on blood vessels and increase the basic tone, reduce the fragility and permeability of the blood vessel wall.

Isoflavones – New research has confirmed that foods containing isoflavones preventive effect on the occurrence of hormone-dependent breast cancer. For now, their real therapeutic significance is small. Li et al. (1999) found that the isoflavone genistein inhibits breast cancer cells, induces apoptosis, regulates gene expression and has the potential to act with metastatic cancer. Genistein and naringenin inhibit profileraciju cancer cells (Harmon et, 2001). Experiments have found that isoflavones may exhibit estrogen action and cause infertility animals. Such effects were first observed in cattle, which grazed the rich genistein and other isoflavones (broom, Genista tinctorumL).

Biflavonoidi Biflavonoidi are powerful antioxidants, stimulate the immune system to respond appropriately to inflammation, allergies and infections. Mentoflavon is a mild antidepressant. Nuevas-Paz et al. (2005) have shown that amentoflavon show antiviral and antitumor activity and that is a powerful antioxidant. Was isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba and reported as an inhibitor of group II phospholipase A2 (Kim, 2006). Amentoflavon inhibits in vivo tumor metastasis, but the mechanism of action is still untested.

Lignin – Lignin is less studied polyphenols, but few studies have shown their potential in inhibiting proliferation of malignant cells. The mechanism of their action has not yet been clarified, although there are indications that they have fitoestrogensku activity or to interact with some enzymes important in the reproduction of cells.

 

Tannins – Tannins and tannin drugs are used: to stop minor bleeding, protect the skin and mucous membrane infections and inflammatory reactions, such antidijaroici as antidotes for poisoning by heavy metals and alkaloids. Special attention is paid to the antimutagenic properties of tannins and antitumorogenim. The tannins in the pericarp mangosteen fruit protect against insects, fungi, plant viruses, bacteria, animals and fruit while still immature. All effects of tannins on animal and human cells and tissues are related to their properties to chemically react with proteins and insoluble complexes built as manifested by precipitation of proteins in the surface layers (astringent effect). In this feature-based and their antimicrobial activity. Author Scalbert (1991) found that tannins exert an inhibitory effect on filamenozne algae, yeasts and bacteria. Reactive tannins are hydrolyzed. For their pharmacological delovaje significant antimicrobial activity and adstringencija. Condensed tannins are active in relation to the (G +) Streptococcus mutans.It has been shown that condensed tannins bind to the cell wall of bacteria of ruminants, preventing growth and protease activity.

Lignans – Pharmacological Action lignans are: inhibition of cytotoxic activity of the enzyme, phosphodiesterase (antihypertensive), prevent platelet aggregation factor binding to receptor sites (anti-allergic action and antireumatično), antiviral activity.

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Author: MPG71

 

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