Keywords: berries, edifikator, blueberry, cranberry, Stara Planina
Stara Planina is situated along the Serbian-Bulgarian border in the north-south direction with the highest peak Midžor (2169m). Besides this peak there are many other peaks over 1700m. Stara Planina is diversified and abundant water from two basins: Nisava and Timok. This mountain belongs to the climate temperate continental climate, with modifications due to altitude and exposure of the land. Geologically the mountain is formed from silica and limestone.
Stara Planina is the strict nature of Stara Planina rezervat.Biljne communities are diverse. Authors who have studied this aspect of the Old Mountain spotted the following phytocenoses: forest, bush, meadow, pasture and tresavske. Altitudinal belts can be observed with some dominant species: oak belt, belt beech, juniper belt and belt subalpijske bushy vegetation. The types of berries are present in these communities and bands that were studied. Cranberry and blueberry can be distinguished by their frequency and abundance in communities and subalpijskom bushy area.
Plant communities in the Stara Planina mountain blueberries
Bilberry is represented in more living communities in the Stara Planina. In a community-Abieti Piceetum vaccinietosum at altitudes of 1350-1600m, blueberry, with spruce and fir is one of the factors of the community. In subalpijskom band from 1750-1900m in the community Vaccinio-Junipero-Piceetum subalpinum with low juniper and spruce subalpijsku bilberry is also one of the builders. Community Juniperetum Vaccinio-grandmother made up primarily of low juniper and blueberry.
Edifikatori community Vaccinietum myrtilli plant species are blueberries and cranberries. These two types of environmental conditions are optimal, reproduce vegetatively and are continuing bushy compact community, the site of Tribulus terrestris. Sexual reproduction is by seeds fotozavisnih which is directly promised to the adaptation to light open habitats. Community blueberries extends above the community in terms of stabilized beech covered with a thick blanket of rock blueberries and other plants. Roots of these plants is linked into a dense compact whole with a layer of litter, detritus and humus. Plant species that built it are intertwined in a dense part. According to available literature data on experimental square meter have been found and over 1000 individuals blueberries and cranberries.
Shrub form, hamefiti, conditions are suitable habitat inaccessible, harsh winter and the strong air currents. Bilberry has a strong root system is flexible and uses various layers of soil. In shallow soil layers form a network of tangled roots, and some deeper roots where the land goes up to 2m in depth. With its roots blueberries wrapped blocks of rocks to form a homogeneous colonies over large areas.
Blueberry and cranberry are the types of heath family (Ericaceae). Bushy forms of these species grow best in acidic, moist soil and humus. Habitats in the Stara Planina addition to the above conditions are far from pollution sources, especially subalpijski belt to 1900m. Plant with fruits such habitats are certainly different from those grown in culture and application of agro-technical measures by the man. Picking fruit from these habitats must be strictly controlled with the application of legislation (Law on Organic Agriculture, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, „Off. Gazette“ no. 28/2000).
Nutritional value and healing properties of blueberries and cranberries
Blueberries are a dark-blue berries, cranberries until berries have svetlocrvene similar size. Juniper berries are sweet-sour and sour taste. Cranberry has a sour berries compared to the blueberry, each in its own way has a pleasant and refreshing taste. In Table 1 (Retrieved A. Brodarec) shows the basic chemical composition of blueberry and cranberry data relating to 100g of edible foods.
Table 1 Basic chemical composition of blueberries and cranberries (%)
The fruits of both species are consumed for centuries, initially as a food in fresh form or as processed juices, marmalade and jam alone or in blends with other fruits. Today, also in our rural areas where these two types of growth, the fruits are added together and used as fresh and processed in various forms. In industrial purposes is usually used blueberry juice production of pure fruit or berries in a cocktail combinations most commonly with raisins and apple.
On the basis of carbohydrates in Tab. 1st can be concluded that the sweeter blueberry, and also that the protein portion is higher than the cranberry. Bilberry has a higher calorific value, while the presence of water in a large cranberries.
Blueberries and cranberries are in addition to nutritional value in use is very important because of its healing components. Part of the healing properties are explained by the fact that contain minerals and vitamins necessary for human body.
Many authors who have studied the medicinal properties of berries blueberry and cranberry highlight the presence of vitamins A , B, and in particular vitamin. C , the juice syrup makes these types of sources of vitamins in the winter.
The tab no. 2 provides a comparative analysis of the received view of certain mineral constituents of blueberries and cranberries relating to 100g of edible foods.
Table. 2 Mineral composition of fruits of blueberry and cranberry (mg/100g of edible fruit)
Based on these data the two species are in the composition of calcium and potassium are very similar. Observed differences in the content of phosphorus, iron and sodium. Compared with other fruits (blackberries, strawberries) were analyzed minerals are less common and could supplement the body needs for these minerals. Table 3 shows the analyzed vitamin in fruits of blueberry and cranberry relating to 100g of edible fruit.
Table 3 Composition of vitamin blueberries and cranberries (per 100g edible part of fruit)
|Fruit||A(IJ)||B 1(Mg)||B 2(Mg)||Nicotinic acid(Mg)||C(Mg)|
Given content of the analyzed vitamin also suggested that vitamin A was significantly more prevalent than in blueberries cranberries. Perhaps in this fact lies the explanation why the blueberry has an effect on improving vision in people who consume it. Analysis showed the vitamin B 1 in the fetus is no different. Blueberries in the content of vitamin B2, nicotinic acid and vitamin C rich cranberry.
Healing effects of blueberries berries is expressed using fresh and dried and prokuvanih. Is already well known effects of blueberries on the prevention of diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Blueberry Wine is preporučivano to improve appetite, with catarrh of the colon, stomach and intestinal diseases, and for detoxification probavog tract. For the cranberry fruit was observed to stimulate urination and have an effective impact of urinary tract infections.
The content of various acids as malic, oxalic, amber, citric fruits give blueberries and cranberries characteristic sour taste, while the tannins give harshness. condensed tannins, proanthocyanidins (PAC s) are compounds that are more recent studies have shown the effect of adhesion to urinary tract tissues, thus prevented binding of infectious bacteria (even E. coli) and the occurrence of inflammation of these organs. This kind of compounds contain both fruit plants, the effect of cranberry is more powerful.
The fruits include cranberries, compared with 19 other plant species most antioxidants (phenols) that are considered important in preventing heart disease and some cancers. The content of flavonoids and polyphenols is important for the prevention of atherosclerosis by reducing lipoprotein oxidation. These ingredients, thus reducing the risk of heart disease in people who consume cranberry or preparations based on fruits of this plant.
In the world especially in America, studied the healing properties of blueberries and cranberries. There is increasing use of these fruits and their products because the ingredients listed can be considered a natural remedy for many diseases and prevention, even the most serious diseases like cancer.
Forest fruits can be considered in terms of organic food, but also in terms of medicinal herbs . Hilly regions of Serbia are important habitats many species of wild fruit. Wide range of interventions that old mountain has a variety of plant communities with a large number of plant species of wild berries, including the frequency and its abundance can be extracted blueberry and cranberry.
Because of nutritional and medicinal properties of cranberries and blueberries, which are discussed in this paper (as an introduction to the study of specific sample the fruit of the localities of Stara Planina) should consider the possibility of technological processing in order to obtain high-quality products with preserved properties. The aim is to enrich our market offering and the type and provide products that are already represented in the global market.
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Authors: Nada Mijajlović, Mirjana Savic, Branka Katic