The municipality is situated on the north slope of Šara mountain massif, where mountainous regions that reach the height up to 2500 m above sea level are predominant, and where the river valley of the river Lepenica with its river basin represents the middle part of the region. The total area of the municipality of Štrpce amounts to 26.762 ha, where agricultural land covers 55% of the municipal area (13651 ha) with the population of about 12000 inhabitants. Pastures cover 38,8 % and meadows 25 % of the total agricultural land and are dominant in the structure of the agricultural land. Land under cultivation that belongs to a class of land with lower quality covers 18 % of the total agricultural land while orchard area is irrelevant. Formation of agricultural land with crop farming and cattle breeding characteristics was exactly influenced by this kind of terrain configuration and land structure with the characteristics of the Alps mountain range. Agricultural area suitable for the development of cattle breeding is placed on surrounding mountain massifs’ slopes and hillsides. An adequate development of complementary branches of agricultural science, along with tourist complex development project would also be a support to the future development of the municipality. Priority should be given to autochthonous dairy products (Šara cheese, Šara hard cheese, Šara white cheese and cheese for making special type of pie made from thin layers of dough and a filling).
Protection of autochthonous cheese is extremely important, because ethnographic wealth of a country that way remains protected, and at the same time it creates remark ability of gastronomic and tourism offer and enables its placement on the domestic and foreign market. Autochthonous cheese production becomes more and more important way of gaining profit in rural households.
Authenticity of autochthonous cheese, according to which the same types of cheese but made in different regions differ, depends, among other things, on autochthonous micro organisms, which are heterogeneous types of lactic acid bacteria. Domination of certain type depends on the type and origin of milk.
Wide, pure and high-quality natural pastures and meadows, in other words abundance of healthy and high-quality cattle fodder is restorable natural resource reproduced by itself. Natural resources also include climatic conditions, like solar energy, wind and gravitation.
Increase in the number of inhabitants with permanent place of residence in Štrpce at first brought to insufficiency of natural resources of food, considering the present production capacity, but on the other side it significantly improved human resources, in other words expert and personnel potential was increased.
According to the analysis of natural resources and human potential, agriculture in municipality of Štrpce should be based on cattle breeding and within it on the production of milk and dairy products.
Table 1. and graph 1. represent the data about the development of the number of heads of cattle during the period from 1998 to 2008. Table 1. also shows base index and chain index extract values.
Table 1 – Development of the number of heads of cattle during the period from 1998 to 2008
|Years||Unit state of cattle||base index||chain index||Unit state of sheep||base index||chain index||Unit state of goats||base index||chain index|
Source:Personal calculation of base index and chain index based on the data of Mini Dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝, Štrpce, 2008.
According to the calculation of base indexes the largest increase in the number of heads of cattle was recorded in 2008 and it amounted to 8.8%. Chain indexes show that the largest increase was recorded in 2001 and it amounted to 17%, then in 2004 and 2005 it amounted to around 5% and in 2008 to 2%.
The greatest increase in the number of sheep in relation to the base year was recorded in 2007 and it amounted to 8.4% and in 2008 when it amounted to 10.5%. According to the chain index extract the largest increase in the number of sheep was recorded in 2001 and it amounted to 19.4%, and afterwards from 2002 to 2006. it amounted to 1.5%, in 2007 it amounted to 6.8% and in 2008 it amounted to 2%.
Extraction of base and chain index for goats also showed increase, which reached the highest point in 2008, when it amounted to 10.3% regarding base indexes and somewhat more than 7%, regarding chain indexes.
The above mentioned potential shows justification for the existence of the production line for organized purchase and processing of milk and dairy products. However, mini dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝ in Štrpce with the capacity up to 500l of daily production, which has been working successfully during the past years, unfortunately doesn’t satisfy the present need and real demand.
The production of milk and dairy products
The production of milk in Serbia is still on unenviable level; during the last six years it hasn’t been significantly changed, more exactly the quantity of the produced milk was increased by 0.32 % in 2007 in comparison to 2000, therefore certain measures should be taken to stimulate its growth and development.
Serbia’s share in the world milk production amounts to 0.31 %, its share in European milk production amounts to 0.90 % and it modestly ranks 22. in Europe, with the production that is higher than the production of milk in Lithuania, and lower than the production of milk in Portugal. Milk producers in Serbia are family households that produce 92 % of the total production, while in agro-industrial plants significantly smaller quantity of milk is being produced. Region that is most successful in the production is Central Serbia, considering that it has an adequate terrain configuration for cattle breeding production.
According to the consumption of milk and dairy products, Serbia is on the bottom of European scale. If it approached European average, it would be confronted to a deficit of those products. Average consumption of milk for 2007 was 60.6 l per capita.
The European Commission Decision to put Serbia on the list of the countries from which it is possible to import milk to the countries of the European Union will have positive effects on the development of domestic agriculture on long terms, since that decision will additionally stimulate agricultural production, because new markets
for the placement of domestic products are being opened. The production of milk and dairy products should be stimulated through the measures of agrarian policy.
Table 2. and Graph 2. show survey of milk and dairy products production development since 1998 to 2008 in Mini Dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝. According to the given data it could be noticed that during recent years there has been a significant increase in the production of milk, and therefore a significant increase in the production of dairy products, as well as in the consumption.
Table 2 – The production of milk and dairy products during the period from 1998 to 2008
Source: Internal data of the Mini Dairy „Lahor-Šara“, Štrpce, 2008
Analyzing the Table 2. and Graph 2. it could be concluded that the purchase of milk was increased during the period from 2004 to 2008 in the Mini Dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝. Based on that fact, the conclusion was reached about larger procession of milk into dairy products. Also, considering that the production of yogurt was not increased, it could be concluded that the milk was used for the larger production of autochthonous cheese, which is evident according to the further discussion within this work.
The production of autochthonous cheese
Autochthonous cheese is a product that is originally made in a certain area as a result of long termed development of the traditional production technology.
Large number of different types of cheese, world-known, is made as a result of autochthonous production, like Emmentaler produced in Switzerland, Gauda produced in the Netherlands etc. Specific taste of autochthonous cheese is influenced by: pasture or hay and geographical area where the cheese is being produced.
To place autochthonous cheese on the foreign market, it is necessary to apply traditional, but standardized technology which assures equal quality and protection of these products, in order to adapt them to the EU market demand.
Taking care of their health, consumers all over the world became more and more demanding while looking for natural products of famous origin. Today, there is a growing number of consumers which want to buy autochthonous products produced in small series according to ecological norms for every day use. According to the data given by FAO sale of ecological food in the world per year is growing more than 20 %. Market research shows that autochthonous food is on average 15 % more expensive than common food. The biggest part of ecological food is placed in the countries of the European Union.
Milk procession, based on small producers scattered all over the map – typical of hilly and mountainous terrain, is also characteristic of the municipality of Štrpce. However, the existing Mini Dairy could take over an important role in the production and procession of milk for the market, if stimulating means for capacity expansion were provided, because this Dairy is small only regarding its capacity, but in regard to all other functions, this dairy is similar to standard Dairies. In that way, beside an increased milk procession, autochthonous dairy products would remain protected, this is of great importance for this area.
Table 3 shows the production of autochthonous types of cheese in Mini Dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝ from Štrpce. An analysis of the data given in the table shows that the assortment of production consists of 3 types of autochthonous cheese and that the most important products are Šara cheese and Šara hard cheese, of which a significant increase in production has been recorded since 2007.
Table 3 – Industrial production of autochthonous cheese from 2000 to 2008 in kg
|Years||Šara cheese||base index||chain index||Šara kachkaval (hard cheese)||base index||chain index||Šara white cheese||base index||chain index.|
Source:Personal calculation of base index and chain index based on the data of Mini dairy ˝Lahor-Šara˝, Štrpce, 2008
General conclusion regarding base and chain indexes and graph survey for the observed period from 2000 to 2008 would be that certain increase in the production of cheese exists, which , according to chain indexes, amounts to 46% for Šara cheese and 17% for kachkaval (hard cheese) in 2007.
Conditions and possibilities to increase the production of autochthonous cheese and to place it on the market
The development of agriculture is usually associated with the provision of additional funds. However, other development possibilities, that are often underestimated, are being discussed within the text, although the funds remain necessary assumption of economic activity.
The number of inhabitants and tendencies in natural population development and in economic structure of the population are important factors which are affecting demand of agricultural and food goods. Level of demand of these goods for the farmers in the mentioned area is conditioned by population numbers and, therefore, more satisfactory prices than in other areas are additional simulative factors for the production activity. Some farmers achieve different results within the same material, natural and social conditions, because of unequal management skills. To make better work decisions in agriculture one needs reliable information, expert knowledge, data about market conditions and market tendencies…New knowledge could be acquired not only from books, from media, through lectures, but also through exchange of experience. A lot of farmers and agricultural organizations could learn a lot from those householders and organizations that succeeded in some agricultural works. Fear of the unknown slows down the changes, while one first accepts what is useful, but already well-known. In brief, the advancement of production management is a significant reserve for more efficient farm management.
In the era of enterprise society, success in agricultural activity is a result of adaptation of useful changes in the means of production, in production technology, in the choice of genotype and in the presentation on the market. Technical and technological changes are achieved through financial investments, but not all useful changes are restricted with funds.
Although to succeed in agricultural economy wide expert knowledge is needed, beginning agricultural education of the youth in our country is insufficient. In fact, educational system mainly directs rural youth to education for the professions that are not in connection with agriculture, which in great deal leads to country and agricultural abandonment. Specialized secondary school is a minimum of expert education of future successful householders. Useful information for the youth from villages would be that in spite of growing unemployment in towns, permanent employment on the family farm is possible and promising. Those family farms are in fact family agricultural firms. The future for those firms´ activity is certain, especially as long as population grows, and as long as our state imports the food. Since technical and technological changes cause the need for bigger knowledge of farmers, increase in the number of agricultural secondary schools within the total numbers of secondary schools has become the public interest. On the other side, it is suitable to improve in principle the position of youth on farms through bigger participation in production management, earlier law of inheritance regulation and satisfaction of their personal needs.
The new Law of Collective Farms enables foundation of farms that would in a great deal take our ancestors´ farms as a model. Our ancestors excelled in the European farmer ship, in contrast to the present situation. To regain trust in the farm, which would be the organization of private owners and which would be founded first of all by farmers using their property upon which they would have all the control while it serves to the economic advancement, it is the present need and our future. Consequently, we need a new farm which wouldn’t be a social firm, but an organization of farmers.
Quality marks, which are extremely important, serve to protect trade marks which satisfy all precisely defined criteria, while regulations are not contrary to the Intellectual Property Law and to TRIPS agreement from 1994.
Almost all member states of the European Union strive to protect the production of their autochthonous cheese. The European Union adopted Regulations No. 2081/92 and No. 1804/99 in 1993, according to which cheese could be protected by quality marks: originality (Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO), geographical origin (Protected Geographical indication (PGI) and guaranteed traditional speciality (Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG).
Traditional technology of the production of autochthonous cheese is simple and completely feasible in modest conditions of hilly and mountainous terrain. Geographical position, climate, height above the sea level and rich mountain pastures are suitable for the breeding of cattle, sheep and goats, consequently they are suitable for the production of milk and traditional products in the municipality of Štrpce.
General conclusion regarding base and chain indexes for the observed period from 2000 to 2008 is that certain increase in the production of cheese in the Mini Dairy Lahor Šara (in that area) exists, which depends on the bigger delivery of milk from private individual farms, and also that there is an indication of stabilized increase in the production and consumption.
Capacity expansion of the existing Mini Dairy, which is small only regarding its capacity, but in regard to all other functions, this dairy is similar to standard Dairies, would stimulate the improvement or change in cattle breeding structure, by adding highly productive milk cows. Also, the conditions necessary for stable milk production would be achieved by introducing modern equipment for automatic and mechanical cattle breeding, and surplus of autochthonous dairy products would appear on the market and those products would after a certain period be placed not only on Serbian market, but on the markets of surrounding countries.
Increase in the level of maintenance of family farms on the territory of municipality of Štrpce, through increase in primary agricultural production of healthy food would bring to the development and promotion of the environment and tourism of Brezovica Mountain, as well.
1. Slavica Arsić, Nataša Cecić, Predrag Vuković: „Značaj malih prerađivačkih kapaciteta za povećanje stočarske proizvodnje na području Kosova i Metohije“, zbornik apstrakata sa simpozijuma sa medjunarodnim učešćem: „Unapređenje poljoprivredne proizvodnje na teritoriji Kosova i Metohije“. Vrnjačka Banja, 26-29 jun 2006, p.89
2. Popović Rade: „Trendovi na svetskom tržištu mleka i uticaj na tržište Srbije“, Prehrambena industrija – mleko i proizvodi od mleka, Beograd,Vol. 19, broj 1-2, 2008, str. 38-43
3. Ostojić Mihailo, Topisirović Ljubiša, Geografska oznaka porekla autohtonih sireva, Ekonomika poljoprivrede, Beograd, Vol. 53, br. 3, 2006, 591-604
4. Nataša Kljaić, Slavica Arsić, Mirjana Savić: „Cattle breeding – a chance for the development of Serbija“. Scientific Papers series „Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development“, University of Agricultural sciences and Veterinary medicine Bucharest .Volume 9 (1) 2009, pag. 65-68
5. Interni podaci: Mini mlekara „Lahor – Šara“, Štrpce, 2008
МОГУЋНОСТИ ПОВЕЋАЊА ПРОИЗВОДЊЕ АУТОНТОНИХ МЛЕЧНИХ ПРОИЗВОДА У ОПШТИНИ ШТРПЦЕ, СРБИЈА
Арсић Славица, Кљајић Наташа, Савић Мирјана
Безбедносна ситуација на Косову и Метохији и саобраћајне прилике односно удаљеност општине Штрпце од већих потрошачких центара и други фактори условљавају прераду млека у постојећој мини млекари и у породичним пољопривредним газдинствима, углавном у дуготрајне беле сиреве у саламуре. Прерада млека у сиреве и млечне производе са краткорочним временом трајања, из горе наведених разлога је много мање заступљена.
У раду су размотрени расположиви природни ресурси и људски потенцијали и извршене су анализе кретања грла стоке и количине аутохтоних млечних производа у периоду од 1998 до 2008 године. На основу извршених анализа дошло се до закључка да би повећање производње аутохтоних млечних производа у општини Штрпце допринело развоју пољопривреде у целини и већу запосленост локалног становништва. Извршене анализе базиране су на скромна финансијска средства, али на ефикаснији наступ институција Србије, уз значајну стручну и научну подршку.
Кључне речи: природни ресурси, анализа кретања грла стоке, млечни производи, подршка перспективе развоја