TAJ MAHAL

Taj Mahal is in Agra, India. This „Dream in marble,“ as they call it art historians, was built on the riverbank for Džamne beloved wife Ariumand Ban Began, by Emperor Jahan chess awarded honorary name of Mumtaz Mahal, the palace jewel. It was after the birth of eight children died in the 1629th , and the mogul is ordered that the tomb built over the grave of its kind the world has seen, at its discretion. Car has completed two more her wishes, he has kept their children and he never married.

Taj Mahal, a masterpiece of civil engineering and art, was built between the 1631st and 1654th year. The construction of this enchanting, monumental monument of love was the 22,000 people for 17 years. The dimensions of the whole complex of rectangular-shaped wall oivičenog amount to 300 mx 560 m. It was built of white marble. It is octagonal domed building with a bulb with a total height of about 75 m., with her two symmetrical buildings are made of red sandstone – one in the northwest and the other in the southeast. In the northwest is a mosque, and to the southeast of holiday homes. In front of Taj Mahal is a huge, beautifully landscaped park, divided into four parts symmetrically arranged channels.

The Taj Mahal was buried, and a ruler beside the grave of his wife.

Edited by: MPG71

ANCIENT CITY OF PETRA

The ancient city of Petra is in Jordan. It is on the UNESCO list of world heritage. It was discovered in the Western world until the 1812th, after it has found the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burhardt. The city is famous for water tunnels and stone structures carved into rocks.

Once upon a time was the capital of the Arab kingdom Nabatejaca, trade center, the destination station wagon. The city was the only place between Jordan and Central Arabia, where there was water in abundance. There are caravans from South Arabia received fresh camel carts and the new goniča.Tako Nabatejci create an important link in the chain of shops that lived south Arabia. It is an ancient city that has experienced its greatest fame in the first century AD when the Romans ruled. The city is on three sides, east, west and south was invincible. Cut into the rock was surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs and it was entered through a tortuous and narrow gorge.

During the first two centuries AD maritime route to India was becoming more widely known, caravans are increasingly diverting north to Palmyra and Petra then started to lose its significance. 105th years was not fatal to Peter when she was Rome under Trajan administration abolished all privileges.

Author: MPG71

 

MACHU PICCHU

Machu Picchu (translated as „old peaks“) is the holy city of the majestic Inca Empire. It is situated at an altitude of 2350 meters above sea level, the highest part of the eastern Andes, on the eastern slopes of the Urubamba mountain range. Machu Picchu is an excellent position. Located in one of the most beautiful and wildest area of ​​the Andes, above a granite top. It is very rough terrain, as on three sides by deep ravines are over 500 m. Below it are high Andean plateau, the river and the Amazon area of ​​prašume.Ima 32,500 hectares.

Machu Picchu was discovered in the 1911th year. It was discovered by American Hajra Bingham.

It is believed that such property was built for the emperor Pachacutija (1438th-1472.) And religious refuge or as a secret ceremonial city. The powerful army of the Inca built irrigation canals, and paved roads, and construction workers built the fort, temples and monumental stone buildings. Archaeologists claim that Machu Picchu was a city in the classical sense, because they found the remains of administration, commerce or military utrvrđenja.

Machu Picchu is located amidst lush vegetation, irrigated by rivers. The city has a large central square around which was built about two hundred buildings located on the terraces. There are also a terrace outside the inhabited part, with the irrigation channels. In St. district has three main buildings: Intihuatana - sundial, the sun temple - triangular building and room with three windows.

The city center is a granite monolith, which may have been an altar, characteristic of the Incas, and perhaps the observatory. The walls of Machu Picchu are built of huge stone blocks. The blocks are perfectly cut. This is very interesting and unexplained to this day when we know that the Incas did not know the wheel or iron tools.

Archaeologists and historians believe that the city was abandoned before the Spanish conquered the Inca empire, the people were mowed the disease and at the end of civil war.

Author: MPG71


 

COLOSEUM

Colosseum in Rome, the amphitheater. His original name „Flavian Amphitheatre“. In the Coliseum were held gladiator fights and fights with animals. It was a magnificent complex of building and sculpture, which served a number of spectacles. They were also held with real sea battle ships, then the arena was completely filled with water. Channel for the flow of water is still below the church of St. Clement near the Colosseum. Spectacles could see 60,000 spectators, 50,000 could be seated and 10,000 standing. It was built so that in case of fire may be discharged for 10 minutes. Construction began in the reign of Emperor Vespasian and was completed ten years later during the reign of his son Domitian.

Colosseum was built in the form of cylindrical bodies in an elliptical floor plan. The seats are slanted down to the arena. Wall mantle almost disappeared in the arcade openings, which he analyzed in three floors and corridors through which they receive light and air. They are decorated with sculptures. The narrow parts of the wall are highlighted polustubovima, pilasters and upper mantle. He was even a retractable roof of canvas. Three-story facade of him. The ground floor is built in the Doric style, the first floor of the Ionian, and Corinthian in the second floor. That was followed by the emergence of the order of these styles in Greece.

Author: MPG71

 

CHRIST THE SAVIOR


Sculpture of Christ the Saviour is located on Mount Corcovado (which translated from Portuguese means hump) near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Granite rocks are located at 709 m above sea level in the forest Tižuka, which is a national park and is visible from every part of the city. Height 38 m sculpture of which is 8 meters height of the foundation.

The idea of ​​building such a religious monument first appeared 1859th year. Suggested Sougia father Pedro Maria Bos and Princess Isabella. The idea was again taken into consideration the 1921st , when he approached the centenary of independence of this country, the idea was close to adoption. Author of the project is Eitor da Silva Costa, artist Carlos Oswald, author of the final design of monuments and French sculptor Paul Landovski, the perpetrator works. The structure of this sacred monument, according to the proposal of Engineers, made of reinforced concrete, which is much better suited for this type of steel. The works lasted five years.
Sculpture of Christ the Savior stands proudly above the outstretched arms of Rio de Janeiro and also expressed warm welcome to anyone who finds himself in this beautiful country.

Edited by: MPG71

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE NEW WORLD

Bernard Weber, founder of the „New Open World Corporation“, initiated and organized an international takamičenje held 2007th The selection of new seven wonders of the world . In this competition could have caused part of the building from the beginning of the completed until 2000. year, provided that still exist in an intact condition. Interested had the opportunity to vote by telephone, e_maila, SMS messages or via the website of the organizer.
According to the election of new sedan world wondersare:

  • Taj Mahal (India);
  • Great Wall of China (China);
  • The ancient city of Petra (Jordan);
  • Sculpture of Christ Redeemer (Brazil);
  • Machu Picchu (Peru);
  • Chichen Itza (Mexico);
  • Colosseum (Italy).

Reviews

  • The organization said that UNESCO has decided not to support this campaign because it believes that it is a media campaign and in Weber’s personal benefit. He also added that the sentimental value is not sufficient for a monument to be included on the list of miracles. UNESCO also claims that the vote is not universal, given that millions of disabled people who do not have Internet access and that the list of candidates is made by kiterijumima who have no educational or scientific nature [2]
  • Some think that the only goal of the project profits (due to, for example, voting by telephone paid) even though Bernard Weber claims that all profits (if any) of this project is intended restoration of monuments.
  • Another criticism of art experts suggest that this competition is the fact that the seven wonders selected by voting, when the artistic value is measured not by vote, especially not people who vote do not have the necessary knowledge of art.
  • Others, however, as the director of Chichen Ice, think that this type of initiative encourages competitiveness and discrimination [3]
  • Some people think of Egypt Pyramids of Giza should not compete with, for example, modern buildings like the Sydney Opera House, and some have even characterized the project as „absurd“ and as a regular promotion of Bernard Weber [4] [5]
  • Many joined the criticism which Unesco has sent in this regard that many were unable to vote because they do not have Internet access, or have no phone, or do not have money to pay to vote [6]. It is added to suspect that a person can vote multiple times.

Reference

1.  UNESCO confirms that it is not involved in the „New 7 Wonders of the World“ campaign. Official web site of UNESCO

2.  „La UNESCO no votar las Siete Maravillas del mundo“, in La Vanguardia.es.

3.  La elección de las Nuevas Maravillas del Mundo Fomento la discriminación, Arqueologo dice.

4.  Incluir rechaza Egypt and Las Piramides de Giza en las Nuevas Siete Maravillas del Mundo.

5.  Sellos de Egipto prohíbe Pirámides como Maravilla del Mundo.

6.  UNESCO marca distancia sobre „Nuevas siete Maravillas del mundo“.

Reviews and references taken from the website:

sr.wikipedia.org / wiki / Sedam_svetskih_čuda_novog_sveta

Edited by: MPG71

 

SEVEN WONDERS OF ANCIENT WORLD

The impressive architectural buildings are old world wonders. There were seventh These are:

  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon
  • ZEUS STATUE
  • TEMPLE goddess Artemis
  • Mausoleum (Vault) at Halicarnassus
  • Colossus of Rhodes
  • FAROSKI LIGHTHOUSE
  • Pyramids of Giza

Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built during the reign of King Nabuhodonosora (604th – 562nd BC), on request of Queen Semiramis. They were in the ancient city of Babylon on the banks of the Euphrates. In architectural terms were spiral gardens, terraced buildings, which could be artificially irrigated. P Approach gardens had the look of the theater. Hanging Gardens were lying on a four story tower.

Within each floor were sečvrsti vaults of tile, which relied on powerful, high pillars. The pillars were tall and up to 25m, allowing enough light for a number of exotic plants. Platform terrace were of massive stone slabs of various shapes, covered with reeds, and then sealed with asphalt. On this foundation was poured a thick layer of fertile soil. Floors gardens were connected to the stairs, and covered with tiles of pink and white. The sprinkling of these gardens were a hundred slaves is secured polevanje all day hauling water from the Euphrates by the system of levers and pumps.

When the Great conquered Babylon Alekasandar, 333 BC, hanging gardens were already collapsed.

Excavations are nastvljaju. Archaeologists are still searching for the hanging gardens, near the Euphrates, because they feel they are found closer to river. Recent excavations revealed in this sector is a channel for bringing water from the Euphrates, which leads to the assumption that this position, however unlikely.

ZEUS STATUE is another wonder of the world. The statue was located in the town of Olympia, on the west coast of modern Greece, about 150 miles west of Athens. The statue is the height of beauty and wonder deserved the name. The famous statue of Zeus was the last work of the sculptor Phidias Hellenic by the 456th BC made a place for the church in the northwest Peloponnese.

Although since it has no trace, other evidence is that the statue sculpted in ivory and wood abonosovom, richly decorated with gold and precious stones. Base of the statue was 6.5 m wide and 1 m high. Height of the statue was 13 feet – as the present four-story building. The statue was so high that visitors described the throne more than Zeus and his sculpture. Socket throne was decorated with carved sphinxes and winged figures of Victory, statues of Greek gods Apollo, Artemis and Niobine children, and mythical creatures. The head was located Zevsovoj wreath of olive twigs. In his left hand there was a scepter with an eagle on top, and his clothes were decorated with carvings of animals and lilies. Zeus was presented with a somber brow to all Olympus trembles. This wonder of the world is not saved.

TEMPLE goddess Artemis is the largest and most complex temple built in ancient times as a shrine in Ephesus, the Greek goddess of hunting, Artemis, nature and fertility. It was built by Cretan architect Hersifron from Knossos, under the auspices of King Kreza. According to the historian Pliny, the temple of Artemis was located at today’s Alasoluka.

The temple was the area of ​​73 x 141 m, is decorated with 137 pillars, which were wearing the temple in two rows and was four times larger than the Parthenon in Athens. He is a symbol and decoration of Ephesus in Asia Minor. Temple of Artemis was built of marble. The temple was surrounded by mermenim stairs that led up to the terrace. The roof of his favored large stone pillars, high by 20 meters. The temple was a religious institution, and served as a market. In the temple are kept some of the great works of Greek artists. The temple was burned 356.godine BC, lighted by a mental patient named Herostrat. He quickly restored to its full beauty. Renewed temple was destroyed by the Goths 262nd BC in his conquest, but they saved some works of art some of which are located in the British Museum in London.

His remains are definitely missing in the swampy soil.

Mausoleum (Vault) was built at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor in the Persian province of Caria. It is a tombstone, which became his life had built 360 BC Carian King Mausoleum, but he died before the completion of construction, and completed the work his wife Artemisium.

This building was so extraordinary and magnificent that today any monumental tomb is called by its name „mausoleum“. The mausoleum was built on an area of ​​pravouganoj 33 x 39 I was high 50 m. There are five steps bore wall, which aid amounted to half the entire height of the mausoleum. The wall is worn above the colonnade of ionic pillars which stood the pyramids – Stepped roof. This grand building was adorned with a big four-in-hand with the statues of the king and queen.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was not preserved, because it destroyed the Knights Order of St. Ivana in the 14th century, by using it as a quarry to build St. Peter Castle.

Colossus of Rhodes

The famous Colossus of Rhodes has no authentic data, but tradition says that the inhabitants of Rhodes statue of their patron rained, the sun god Helios, after the victory over the Macedonian king Demetrius Poliokretom.
They picked up enemy weapons and equipment, melt them and used for casting the statue. It is a bronze statue about 45 and 70 tons heavy. It was built about 12 years. Colossi outpouring led by the sculptor Kares, 291 BC dominated the statue at the entrance to the harbor. After 50 years, Rhodes was devastating earthquake shook the Colossus statue and fell into the sea.

FAROSKI Lighthouse began to be built around 283.godine BC on the island of Pharos, Alexandria harbor front. Legend has it that the Greek architect Sostrat built this great tower on the basis of glass. Sostrat has long sought a material that would be durable in sea water and finally placed the giant tower blocks of huge glass.

It is believed that, above a rectangular base, an octagonal tower was almost 200 meters high. At its highest platform, every night is a fire burning under which they operate ships at the entrance to the harbor. Faroski lighthouse was considered the greatest technical achievement and architectural success of the old century.

The lighthouse was destroyed 1375th in the earthquake.

PYRAMID at Giza were built some 4,500 years ago as tombs for pharaohs and their families. The pyramids are built of heavy stone blocks up to several tons. They have a square base, whose four sides at the top end in the same crown. Inside the pyramid there is room for a sarcophagus.

No accurate data on the construction of the way, how to build lasting and how many people participate in it. According to Herodotus, the „father of history“ cčvene pyramid at Giza – Khufu, and Kefrenova Mikerinova were built between the 2650th and 2550th BC According to the document, which he made the stories collected on his journeys, preparations for building the Great Pyramid took 10 years, a development about 20 years and participated in about 100 000 workers. Spent over two million stone blocks. The high was 146 m.

Slaves, who built was exposed to the enormous efforts, serious suffering and mistreatment of works supervisor. There is a dissenting opinion researcher Paul Ripper, who has long dealt with piramidama.On believes that Herodotus exaggerated the data and believe that the people who built it were happy and honored to take part in this project.

The pyramids are the only architectural wonder of the world of the old era, which still defy time and will remain in place long after our time.
Edited by: MPG71