COLOSEUM

Colosseum in Rome, the amphitheater. His original name “Flavian Amphitheatre”. In the Coliseum were held gladiator fights and fights with animals. It was a magnificent complex of building and sculpture, which served a number of spectacles. They were also held with real sea battle ships, then the arena was completely filled with water. Channel for the flow of water is still below the church of St. Clement near the Colosseum. Spectacles could see 60,000 spectators, 50,000 could be seated and 10,000 standing. It was built so that in case of fire may be discharged for 10 minutes. Construction began in the reign of Emperor Vespasian and was completed ten years later during the reign of his son Domitian.

Colosseum was built in the form of cylindrical bodies in an elliptical floor plan. The seats are slanted down to the arena. Wall mantle almost disappeared in the arcade openings, which he analyzed in three floors and corridors through which they receive light and air. They are decorated with sculptures. The narrow parts of the wall are highlighted polustubovima, pilasters and upper mantle. He was even a retractable roof of canvas. Three-story facade of him. The ground floor is built in the Doric style, the first floor of the Ionian, and Corinthian in the second floor. That was followed by the emergence of the order of these styles in Greece.

Author: MPG71

 

CHRIST THE SAVIOR


Sculpture of Christ the Saviour is located on Mount Corcovado (which translated from Portuguese means hump) near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Granite rocks are located at 709 m above sea level in the forest Tižuka, which is a national park and is visible from every part of the city. Height 38 m sculpture of which is 8 meters height of the foundation.

The idea of ​​building such a religious monument first appeared 1859th year. Suggested Sougia father Pedro Maria Bos and Princess Isabella. The idea was again taken into consideration the 1921st , when he approached the centenary of independence of this country, the idea was close to adoption. Author of the project is Eitor da Silva Costa, artist Carlos Oswald, author of the final design of monuments and French sculptor Paul Landovski, the perpetrator works. The structure of this sacred monument, according to the proposal of Engineers, made of reinforced concrete, which is much better suited for this type of steel. The works lasted five years.
Sculpture of Christ the Savior stands proudly above the outstretched arms of Rio de Janeiro and also expressed warm welcome to anyone who finds himself in this beautiful country.

Edited by: MPG71

SEVEN WONDERS OF THE NEW WORLD

Bernard Weber, founder of the “New Open World Corporation”, initiated and organized an international takamičenje held 2007th The selection of new seven wonders of the world . In this competition could have caused part of the building from the beginning of the completed until 2000. year, provided that still exist in an intact condition. Interested had the opportunity to vote by telephone, e_maila, SMS messages or via the website of the organizer.
According to the election of new sedan world wondersare:

  • Taj Mahal (India);
  • Great Wall of China (China);
  • The ancient city of Petra (Jordan);
  • Sculpture of Christ Redeemer (Brazil);
  • Machu Picchu (Peru);
  • Chichen Itza (Mexico);
  • Colosseum (Italy).

Reviews

  • The organization said that UNESCO has decided not to support this campaign because it believes that it is a media campaign and in Weber’s personal benefit. He also added that the sentimental value is not sufficient for a monument to be included on the list of miracles. UNESCO also claims that the vote is not universal, given that millions of disabled people who do not have Internet access and that the list of candidates is made by kiterijumima who have no educational or scientific nature [2]
  • Some think that the only goal of the project profits (due to, for example, voting by telephone paid) even though Bernard Weber claims that all profits (if any) of this project is intended restoration of monuments.
  • Another criticism of art experts suggest that this competition is the fact that the seven wonders selected by voting, when the artistic value is measured not by vote, especially not people who vote do not have the necessary knowledge of art.
  • Others, however, as the director of Chichen Ice, think that this type of initiative encourages competitiveness and discrimination [3]
  • Some people think of Egypt Pyramids of Giza should not compete with, for example, modern buildings like the Sydney Opera House, and some have even characterized the project as “absurd” and as a regular promotion of Bernard Weber [4] [5]
  • Many joined the criticism which Unesco has sent in this regard that many were unable to vote because they do not have Internet access, or have no phone, or do not have money to pay to vote [6]. It is added to suspect that a person can vote multiple times.

Reference

1.  UNESCO confirms that it is not involved in the “New 7 Wonders of the World” campaign. Official web site of UNESCO

2.  “La UNESCO no votar las Siete Maravillas del mundo”, in La Vanguardia.es.

3.  La elección de las Nuevas Maravillas del Mundo Fomento la discriminación, Arqueologo dice.

4.  Incluir rechaza Egypt and Las Piramides de Giza en las Nuevas Siete Maravillas del Mundo.

5.  Sellos de Egipto prohíbe Pirámides como Maravilla del Mundo.

6.  UNESCO marca distancia sobre “Nuevas siete Maravillas del mundo”.

Reviews and references taken from the website:

sr.wikipedia.org / wiki / Sedam_svetskih_čuda_novog_sveta

Edited by: MPG71

 

SEVEN WONDERS OF ANCIENT WORLD

The impressive architectural buildings are old world wonders. There were seventh These are:

  • Hanging Gardens of Babylon
  • ZEUS STATUE
  • TEMPLE goddess Artemis
  • Mausoleum (Vault) at Halicarnassus
  • Colossus of Rhodes
  • FAROSKI LIGHTHOUSE
  • Pyramids of Giza

Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built during the reign of King Nabuhodonosora (604th – 562nd BC), on request of Queen Semiramis. They were in the ancient city of Babylon on the banks of the Euphrates. In architectural terms were spiral gardens, terraced buildings, which could be artificially irrigated. P Approach gardens had the look of the theater. Hanging Gardens were lying on a four story tower.

Within each floor were sečvrsti vaults of tile, which relied on powerful, high pillars. The pillars were tall and up to 25m, allowing enough light for a number of exotic plants. Platform terrace were of massive stone slabs of various shapes, covered with reeds, and then sealed with asphalt. On this foundation was poured a thick layer of fertile soil. Floors gardens were connected to the stairs, and covered with tiles of pink and white. The sprinkling of these gardens were a hundred slaves is secured polevanje all day hauling water from the Euphrates by the system of levers and pumps.

When the Great conquered Babylon Alekasandar, 333 BC, hanging gardens were already collapsed.

Excavations are nastvljaju. Archaeologists are still searching for the hanging gardens, near the Euphrates, because they feel they are found closer to river. Recent excavations revealed in this sector is a channel for bringing water from the Euphrates, which leads to the assumption that this position, however unlikely.

ZEUS STATUE is another wonder of the world. The statue was located in the town of Olympia, on the west coast of modern Greece, about 150 miles west of Athens. The statue is the height of beauty and wonder deserved the name. The famous statue of Zeus was the last work of the sculptor Phidias Hellenic by the 456th BC made a place for the church in the northwest Peloponnese.

Although since it has no trace, other evidence is that the statue sculpted in ivory and wood abonosovom, richly decorated with gold and precious stones. Base of the statue was 6.5 m wide and 1 m high. Height of the statue was 13 feet – as the present four-story building. The statue was so high that visitors described the throne more than Zeus and his sculpture. Socket throne was decorated with carved sphinxes and winged figures of Victory, statues of Greek gods Apollo, Artemis and Niobine children, and mythical creatures. The head was located Zevsovoj wreath of olive twigs. In his left hand there was a scepter with an eagle on top, and his clothes were decorated with carvings of animals and lilies. Zeus was presented with a somber brow to all Olympus trembles. This wonder of the world is not saved.

TEMPLE goddess Artemis is the largest and most complex temple built in ancient times as a shrine in Ephesus, the Greek goddess of hunting, Artemis, nature and fertility. It was built by Cretan architect Hersifron from Knossos, under the auspices of King Kreza. According to the historian Pliny, the temple of Artemis was located at today’s Alasoluka.

The temple was the area of ​​73 x 141 m, is decorated with 137 pillars, which were wearing the temple in two rows and was four times larger than the Parthenon in Athens. He is a symbol and decoration of Ephesus in Asia Minor. Temple of Artemis was built of marble. The temple was surrounded by mermenim stairs that led up to the terrace. The roof of his favored large stone pillars, high by 20 meters. The temple was a religious institution, and served as a market. In the temple are kept some of the great works of Greek artists. The temple was burned 356.godine BC, lighted by a mental patient named Herostrat. He quickly restored to its full beauty. Renewed temple was destroyed by the Goths 262nd BC in his conquest, but they saved some works of art some of which are located in the British Museum in London.

His remains are definitely missing in the swampy soil.

Mausoleum (Vault) was built at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor in the Persian province of Caria. It is a tombstone, which became his life had built 360 BC Carian King Mausoleum, but he died before the completion of construction, and completed the work his wife Artemisium.

This building was so extraordinary and magnificent that today any monumental tomb is called by its name “mausoleum”. The mausoleum was built on an area of ​​pravouganoj 33 x 39 I was high 50 m. There are five steps bore wall, which aid amounted to half the entire height of the mausoleum. The wall is worn above the colonnade of ionic pillars which stood the pyramids – Stepped roof. This grand building was adorned with a big four-in-hand with the statues of the king and queen.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was not preserved, because it destroyed the Knights Order of St. Ivana in the 14th century, by using it as a quarry to build St. Peter Castle.

Colossus of Rhodes

The famous Colossus of Rhodes has no authentic data, but tradition says that the inhabitants of Rhodes statue of their patron rained, the sun god Helios, after the victory over the Macedonian king Demetrius Poliokretom.
They picked up enemy weapons and equipment, melt them and used for casting the statue. It is a bronze statue about 45 and 70 tons heavy. It was built about 12 years. Colossi outpouring led by the sculptor Kares, 291 BC dominated the statue at the entrance to the harbor. After 50 years, Rhodes was devastating earthquake shook the Colossus statue and fell into the sea.

FAROSKI Lighthouse began to be built around 283.godine BC on the island of Pharos, Alexandria harbor front. Legend has it that the Greek architect Sostrat built this great tower on the basis of glass. Sostrat has long sought a material that would be durable in sea water and finally placed the giant tower blocks of huge glass.

It is believed that, above a rectangular base, an octagonal tower was almost 200 meters high. At its highest platform, every night is a fire burning under which they operate ships at the entrance to the harbor. Faroski lighthouse was considered the greatest technical achievement and architectural success of the old century.

The lighthouse was destroyed 1375th in the earthquake.

PYRAMID at Giza were built some 4,500 years ago as tombs for pharaohs and their families. The pyramids are built of heavy stone blocks up to several tons. They have a square base, whose four sides at the top end in the same crown. Inside the pyramid there is room for a sarcophagus.

No accurate data on the construction of the way, how to build lasting and how many people participate in it. According to Herodotus, the “father of history” cčvene pyramid at Giza – Khufu, and Kefrenova Mikerinova were built between the 2650th and 2550th BC According to the document, which he made the stories collected on his journeys, preparations for building the Great Pyramid took 10 years, a development about 20 years and participated in about 100 000 workers. Spent over two million stone blocks. The high was 146 m.

Slaves, who built was exposed to the enormous efforts, serious suffering and mistreatment of works supervisor. There is a dissenting opinion researcher Paul Ripper, who has long dealt with piramidama.On believes that Herodotus exaggerated the data and believe that the people who built it were happy and honored to take part in this project.

The pyramids are the only architectural wonder of the world of the old era, which still defy time and will remain in place long after our time.
Edited by: MPG71







 

DEVIL’S TOWN

Natural Monument “Devil’s Town” is located in southern Serbia, the mountain Radan, 30 km away from Kuršumlija and 288 km from Belgrade. This area is a strange name and even čudnijeg looks, with a group of spindle poles covered with stone caps – earthen pyramids.

Clay figures, as well as specific forms of relief, the space look very atraktivno.U hinterland pyramids steeply rising section of erosive amphitheater with colorful rocks as evidence of strong volcanic activity in the geological past. The environment around the clay figures seems harsh, almost mystical, and in the wider environment lively and gentle, and the remains of villages, old churches, cemeteries, and some interesting mining pits.

Džavolju town consists of two rare natural phenomena: the clay figures and two sources of highly acidic water with high mineralization. One source rises high above the ravine and the Hell’s popularly known Devil’s water. Another source is red hot, which comes out on the right bank of Yellow creek, but the weaker mineralization and acidity. The phenomena of this water are very rare in the world.

These two phenomena are Djavolja Varos real world wonder of nature. That is why a candidate for the election of seven new wonders of the world, initiated by Swiss private agency. The vote was taken via the Internet.

National traditions say that the poles represent God’s punishment petrified wedding. The story of the petrified wedding has multiple versions. One of them says, by order of the evil one, people decided to get married at all costs born brother and sister. To prevent this from happening again interfered God’s power, that they were punished so petrified to ever testify that no sin will go unpunished.

The story of the petrified wedding has a different version. She says that, by order of the evil one, people decided to get married at all costs born brother and sister. To prevent this from happening again interfered God’s power, which was thus left to ever testify that no sin will go unpunished.

There is another legend. One day, according to legend, harsh aga gathered a very strong army destroyed a village in the area Džavolje town and its people turned into stone towers. Their souls, trapped in stone, still alive.

Science explains that the creation of man caused the Devil’s town KECECI forest and clearing the way for the devastating effects of erosion.

The stone blocks on top of the pillars serve as umbrellas, but the torrent of water continues to pass between the pieces, washed and ground to make the pillars eventually become higher; poles grow, change and go places.

Džavolja town is located within the tourist complex. The attraction of earth pillars istknuta the light by the LED technology with 28 different colors.

Devil’s attractiveness lies in the town appears bizarre forms of relief, by its appearance, size, abundance and rarity of the natural position of European and world importance and attracted the attention of tourists, scientists and educators and artists.

Devil’s Town The site was placed under state protection is the 1959th year, in 1995. Regulation is the Serbian government declared a natural reserve of great importance and placed into the first category of protection – natural monument. A total of protected 67 ha. Currently, the RS government’s request for protection is 1014 ha.

Edited by: MPG71

 

UNUSUAL ROCK IN THE VICINITY GIANTS KOZVEJA

In the county of Antrim on the northeast coast of Northern Ireland has about 40,000 miraculous pillars. Volcanic activity 60 million years ago in the Giants Kozveja was strong and it produced the largest basalt slab in Europe.

When the hardened lava, contractionary forces were so smooth that the board broke the geometric precision. Pillars were formed mainly hexagonal base, although there were some osmostraničnih. Due to the extreme attractiveness of visiting this area every year around 700,000 tourists.

Edited by: MPG71

 

NEOBIČNE STENE U BLIZINI DŽAJANTS KOZVEJA

U grofoviji Antrim na severoistočnoj obali Severne Irske ima oko 40.000 čudesnih stubova. Vulkanska aktivnost je pre 60 miliona godina u području Džajants Kozveja bila jaka i stvorila je najveću bazaltnu ploču u Evropi.

Kad se lava stvrdnula, kontrakcijske sile su bile tako ravnomerne da je ploča popucala geometrijskom preciznošću. Formirali su se stubovi uglavnom heksagonalne osnove, mada ih ima i osmostraničnih. Zbog izuzetne atraktivnosti ovo područje obilazi svake godine oko 700.000 turista.

Uredio: MPG71

ĐAVOLJA VAROŠ

Spomenik prirode „Đavolja Varoš“ nalazi se na jugu Srbije, ispod planine Radan, udaljen 30 km od Kuršumlije i  288 km od Beograda. Ovo je područje čudnog imena i još čudnijeg izgleda, sa skupinom vretenastih stubova pokrivenih kamenim kapama – zemljanim piramidama.

Zemljane figure, kao specifični oblici reljefa, u prostoru deluju vrlo atraktivno.U zaleđu zemljanih piramida strmo se uzdiže odsek erozivnog amfiteatra sa raznobojnim stenama kao svedočanstvo snažnih vulkanskih aktivnosti u geološkoj prošlosti. Ambijent oko zemljanih figura deluje surovo, skoro mistično, a u širem okruženju živopisno i pitomo, kao i ostaci naselja, stare crkve, groblja i nekoliko zanimljivih rudarskih jama.

Džavolju varoš čine dva retka prirodna fenomena: zemljane figure i dva izvora jako kisele vode sa visokom mineralizacijom. Jedan izvor izvire visoko iznad Paklene jaruge i narod ga zove Ðavoljom vodom. Drugi izvor je Crveno vrelo, koje izbija na desnoj obali Žutog potoka, ali je slabije mineralizacije i kiselosti. Pojave ovakve vode su veoma retke u svetu.

Ova dva fenomena čine Đavolju Varoš pravim svetskim čudom prirode. Zato je i bila kandidat za izbor sedam novih svetskih čuda, koji je pokrenula švajcarska privatna agencija. Glasalo se putem interneta.

Narodna predanja govore da stubovi predstavljaju po božjoj kazni okamenjene svatove. Priča o skamenjenim svatovima ima više verzija. Jedna od njih kaže da su, po nalogu Nečastivog, ljudi rešili da po svaku cenu venčaju rođenog brata i sestru. Da se to ne bi dogodilo, ponovo se umešala Božija sila, koja ih je kaznila i tako okamenila da večno svedoče kako ni jedan greh neće proci bez kazne.

Priča o skamenjenim svatovima ima i drugu verziju. Ona kaže da su, po nalogu Nečastivog, ljudu rešili da po svaku cenu venčaju rođenog brata i sestru. Da se to ne bi dogodilo, ponovo se umešala Božija sila, koja ih je tako ostavila da večno svedoče da nijedan greh neće proći bez kazne.

Postoji i druga legenda. Jednoga dana, kaže legenda, surovi aga je okupio silnu vojsku, srušio naselje na mestu Džavolje varoši, a sve njegove stanovnike pretvorio u kamene kule. Njihove duše, zarobljene u kamenu, još žive.

Nauka objašnjava da je stvaranje Đavolje varoši prouzrokovao čovek kečeći šumu i otvarajući put za razorno delovanje erozije.

Kameni blokovi na vrhovima stubova služe kao kišobrani, međutim vodene bujice i dalje prolaze izmedu figura, spiraju zemlju i čine da stubovi s vremenom postaju sve viši; stubovi rastu, menjaju mesta i nestaju.

Džavolja varoš se nalazi u sklopu Turističkog kompleksa. Atraktivnost zemljanih stubova istknuta je i osvetljenjem po tehnologiji led dioda sa 28 različitih boja.

Atraktivnost Đavolje varoši leži u pojavi bizarnih oblika reljefa, koji svojim izgledom, veličinom, brojnošću i položajem predstavljaju prirodnu retkost evropskog i svetskog značaja i privlače pažnju turista, naučnih i obrazovnih radnika i umetnika.

Lokalitet Đavolja Varoš je stavljen pod zaštitu države još 1959. godine, a 1995. godine je Uredbom Vlade Republike Srbije proglašen za prirodno dobro od izuzetnog značaja i stavljen u prvu kategoriju zaštite – SPOMENIK PRIRODE. Ukupno je zaštićeno 67 ha površine. Trenutno se kod vlade RS nalazi zahtev za zaštitu 1014 ha.

Uredio: MPG71

SEDAM STARIH SVETSKIH ČUDA

Impozantni arhitektonski objekti su stara svetska čuda. Bilo ih je 7. To su:

  • SEMIRAMIDINI VISEĆI VRTOVI
  • ZEVSOVA STATUA
  • HRAM BOGINJE ARTEMIDE
  • MAUZOLEJ (GROBNICA) U HALIKARNASU
  • KOLOS SA RODOSA
  • FAROSKI SVETIONIK
  • PIRAMIDE U GIZI

SEMIRAMIDINI VISEĆI VRTOVI su izgrađeni za vreme vladavine kralja Nabuhodonosora (604. – 562. p.n.e.), a po želji kraljice Semiramide. Nalazili su se u drevnom gradu Vavilonu, na obalama Eufrata. U arhitektonskom smislu vrtovi su bili spiralna, terasasta građevina, koja je mogla vestački da se navodnjava. PPrilaz vrtovima imao je izgled pozorišta. Viseći vrtovi  su ležali na četverospratnoj kuli.

Unutar svakoga sprata nalazili su sečvrsti svodovi od crepa, koji su se oslanjali na snažne, visoke stubove. Stubovi su bili visoki i do 25m, što je omogućilo dovoljno svjetlosti za brojne egzotične biljke. Platforme terasa bile su od masivnih kamenih ploča različitih oblika, prekrivene trskom, a potom zalivene asfaltom. Na takvu podlogu je bio nasut debeli sloj plodne zemlje. Spratovi vrtova bili su spojeni stepenicama i pokriveni pločicama ružičaste i bele boje. Na polijevanju ovih vrtova radilo je Stotinjak robova je obezbeđivalo polevanje po čitav dan vukući vodu iz Eufrata pomoću sistema poluga i pumpi.

Kada je Alekasandar Veliki osvojio Vavilon, 333. g.p.n.e., viseći vrtovi su već bili propali.

Iskopavanja se nastvljaju. Arheolozi i dalje tragaju za visećim vrtovima, bliže Eufratu, jer smatraju da su se oni nalazili bliže reci. Nedavnim iskopavanjima otkriven je u tom sektoru kanal za dovođenje vode iz Eufrata, što navodi na predpostavku da je ta teza ipak verovatna.

ZEVSOVA STATUA je još jedno svetsko čudo . Statua se nalazila u samom gradu Olimpiji, na zapadnoj obali današnje Grčke, oko 150 km zapadno od Atine. Statua je visinom i lepotom zaslužila naziv čudo. Čuvena Zevsova statua je poslednje delo helenskog vajara Fidije, koju je 456. godine p.n.e. napravio za hram u mestu na severozapadu Peloponeza.

Iako od nje nema nikakvog traga, ostalo je svedočenje da je statua izvajana u slonovači i abonosovom drvetu, bogato ukrašena zlatom i dragim kamenjem. Osnova statue bila je 6,5 m široka i 1 m visoka. Visina same statue je bila 13 m – kao današnja četvorospratnica. Statua je bila toliko visoka, da su posetioci više opisivali tron, nego Zevsa i njegovu skulpturu. Podnožje trona bilo je ukrašeno rezbarijama sfinge i figurama Pobede sa krilima, skulpturama grčkih bogova Apola, Artemide i Niobine dece, kao i mitskih bića. Na Zevsovoj glavi nalazio se venac od maslinovog šiblja. U njegovoj levoj ruci nalazio se skiptar sa orlom na vrhu, a njegova odeća je bila ukrašena rezbarijama životinja i ljiljana. Zevs je bio prikazan sa namrštenim čelom da uzdrhti ceo Olimp. Ovo svetsko čudo nije sačuvano.

HRAM BOGINJE ARTEMIDE je najveći i najkompleksniji hram sagrađen u drevna vremena u Efesu kao  svetilište grčke boginje lova, prirode i plodnosti Artemide. Sagradio ga je kritski graditelj Hersifron iz Knososa, pod pokroviteljstvom  kralja Kreza. Prema istoričaru Pliniju, Artemidin hram se nalazio na mestu današnjeg Alasoluka.

Hram je bio površine 73 x 141 m, ukrašen sa 137 stuba, koji su opasivali hram u dva reda i bio je četiri puta veći od Partenona u Atini. Bio je simbol i ukras grada Efesa u Maloj Aziji. Artemidin hram je bio  sagrađen od mermera. Hram je bio okružen mermenim stepenicama, koje su vodile do najviše terase. Krov su mu podupirali veliki kameni stubovi, visoki po 20 metara. Hram je bio religiozna institucija, a  služio je i kao pijaca. U hramu su čuvana neka od velikih dela grčkih umetnika. Hram je izgoreo 356.godine p.n.e. , zapalio ga je duševni bolesnik po imenu Herostrat. Ubrzo je ponovo obnovljen u punoj svojoj lepoti. Obnovljeni hram su uništili Goti 262. godine p.n.e. u svom osvajačkom pohodu, ali su sačuvana neka umetnička dela od kojih se neka nalaze u Britanskom muzeju u Londonu.

Njegovi ostaci su definitivno nestali u močvarnom zemljištu.

MAUZOLEJ (GROBNICA) U HALIKARNASU je sagrađen u Maloj Aziji u persijskoj provinciji Karija. To je nadgrobni spomenik, koji je sebi za života dao sagraditi 360 g.p.n.e. karijski kralj Mauzolej, ali je umro pre dovršetka izgradnje, pa je posao dovršila njegova žena Artemizija.

Ova građevina je bila tako izvanredna i raskošna da se danas svaka monumentalna grobnica naziva njenim imenom “mauzolejom”. Mauzolej je bio izgrađen na pravouganoj površini od 33 x 39 m i bio je visok 50 m.  Pet je stepenica nosilo zid, koji je dosezao do polovine čitave visine mauzoleja. Zid je nosio kolonadu jonskih stubova iznad kojih se nalazila piramida – stepenasti krov. Velelepna građevina je bila ukrašena velikim četvoropreg sa statuama kralja i kraljice.

Mauzolej u Halikarnasu nije sačuvan, jer su ga uništili vitezovi reda Svetog Ivana u 14. veku upotrebivši ga kao kamenolom za izgradnju Petrove tvrđave.

KOLOS SA RODOSA

O čuvenom Kolosu sa Rodosa nema autentičnih podataka, ali predanje kaže da su stanovnici Rodosa  izlili statuu svog zaštitnika, boga Sunca Heliosa, posle pobede nad makedonskim kraljem Demetrijem Poliokretom.
Pokupili su neprijateljsko oružje i sprave, istopili ih i upotrebili za izlivanje statue. To je bronzana statua visoka oko 45 i teska 70 tona. Rađena je oko 12 godina. Izlivanjem Kolosa rukovodio je vajar Kares, 291. godine p.n.e.  Statua je dominirala na ulazu u luku. Posle 50 godina Rodos je potresao razorni zemljotres i statua Kolosa je pala u more.

FAROSKI SVETIONIK počeo je da se gradi oko 283.godine pre nove ere, na ostrvu Farosu, ispred aleksandrijskog pristaništa. Legenda kaže da je grčki arhitekta Sostrat izgradio ovaj veliki toranj na temeljima od stakla. Sostrat je dugo tragao za materijalom, koji bi bio postojan u morskoj vodi i najzad je ovaj džinovski toranj smestio na ogromne staklene blokove.

Predpostavlja se da je, iznad pravougaone osnove, osmougaoni toranj  bio visok gotovo 200 metara. Na njegovoj najvišoj platformi, svake noći gorela je vatra prema kojoj su se upravljali brodovi na ulasku u luku. Faroski svetionik je smatran najvećim tehničkim dostignućem i arhitektonskim uspehom starog veka.

Svetionik je uništen 1375. godine u zemljotresu.

PIRAMIDE IZ GIZE sagrađene su pre nekih 4500 godina kao grobnice faraonima i njihovim porodicama. Piramide su zidane od kamenih blokova teških i po nekoliko tona. Imaju četvrtastu osnovu, čije se četiri strane pri vrhu završavaju u zajedničkom temenu. U unutrašnjosti piramida se nalazi prostor za sarkofag.

Nema tačnih podataka o načinu izgranje, koliko je izgradnja trajala i koliko je ljudi u tome učestvovalo. Prema Herodotu,”ocu istorije” cčvene piramide iz Gize – Keopsova, Kefrenova i Mikerinova, građene su između 2650. i 2550. godine pre n.e. Prema dokumentu, koji je on napravio po pričama sakupljenim na njegovim putovanjima, pripreme za gradnju Keopsove piramide je trajala  10 godina, a izgradnja oko 20 godina, a učestvovalo je oko 100 000 radnika. Utrošeno je preko dva miliona kamenih blokova. Visoka je 146 m.

Robovi, koji su je gradili bil su izloženi ogromnim naporima,velikim patnjama i maltretiranjima nadglednika radova. Postoji i suprotno mišljenje istraživača Paul Rippera, koji se dugo vremena bavio piramidama.On veruje da su Herodotovi podaci preterani i veruje da su ljudi, koji su je gradili bili sretni i počastvovani što mogu učestvovati u takvom projektu.

Piramide su jedino arhitektonsko svetsko čudo stare ere, koje još i danas prkose vremenu i koje će na svom mestu ostati još dugo posle našeg doba.
Uredio: MPG71







FINALISTI ZA IZBOR SEDAM NOVIH SVETSKIH ČUDA

Za izbor sedam novih svetskih čuda prijavio se preko interneta veliki broj kandidata. Svi su oni bili na svoj način posebni, što im je moglo doneti titulu “novog čuda”, ali pobedili su:

  • Tadž Mahal (Indija);
  • Kineski zid (Kina);
  • Drevni grad Petra (Jordan);
  • Skulptura Hristosa Spasitelja (Brazil);
  • Maču Pikču (Peu);
  • Čičen Ica (Meksiko);
  • Koloseum (Italija).

Ostalih 14 finalista koji su bili na spisku za izbor su:

                                                                          Akropolj (Grčka)

                                                                Alambra (Španija)

                                                                      Angkor (Kambodža)

                                                                    Nojšvanštajn (Nemačka)

                                                                             Kip slobode (SAD)

                                                                       Kijomicu-dera (Japan)


                                                                        Uskršnja ostrva (Čile)

                                                                 

                                                                   Sidnejska opera (Australija)

                                                                          

                                                                             Crkva sv. Vasilija (Rusija)

                                                                 

                                                                  Sveta Sofija (Turska)

                                                        

                                                              Stounhendž (Velika Britanija)

                                                                         

                                                                        Timbuktu (Mali)

                                                                    

                                                                     Ajfelova kula (Francuska)

                                                               

                                                                    Piramide u Gizi (Egipat)

Počasno mesto su dobile piramide, kao jedino od sedam starih svetskih čuda, koje još uvek postoji. Na zahtev Egipta piramide su povučene iz kandidature.
Uredio: MPG71