THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TUNA

Nutrients of tuna

Amount

Basic Components
Protein

19.8 g

Water

57.9 g

Ash

1.0 g

Calories
Total Calories

511 KJ

Calories From Fat

157 KJ

Calories From CarbohydrateCalories From Protein

0.8 KJ

355 KJ

Fats
Total Fat

4.2 g

Saturated Fat

1.1 g

Mono Fat

1.4 g

Poly Fat

1.2 g

Total Weight of Tuna: 35 grams

FLAVONOLS

Flavonols are the most widespread flavonoids in foods. These are the yellow pigments. The main representatives of this group of compounds are quercetin and kemferol, but are also known for morin, rutin, myricetin, izoramnetin, fisetin.

The food is quercetin present in the range from 6.0 (wild raspberry) to 486.0 (black bow), and kemferol of 5.0 (strawberry) to 211.0 mg / kg (kale). Flavonols are present in glikozidnoj form, associated with diabetes unit, usually glucose, and rhamnose, but can be represented and other sugars (as galactose, arabinose, xylose).

The content of total flavonols in some fruits

Fruit

Concentration (mg/1kg)

Black currant (Ribes nigrum Öjebyn)

115

Red currant (Ribes nigrum Vertti)

32

Red currant (Ribes × pallidum Red Polish)

9

White currant (Ribes x pallidum White Polish)

7

Yellow Gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

34

Cven Gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

41

Swamp blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum-wild)

184

Red Currant (Vaccinium vitis-idaea-wild)

74, 146

(Vaccinium oxycoccos-wild)

157, 263

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus-wild)

43, 51

Northern Bilberry (Vaccinium corymbosum Northblue)

40

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Senga Sengana)

15

Strawberry Jonsok (Fragaria x ananassa Jonsok)

12

Aronia (Aronia mitschurinii Viking)

89

Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia-wild)

63

Sweet rowan (Grataegosorbus mitschurinii Granatnaja)

85

Raspberry (Rubus idaeus Ottawa)

8

Muskoka raspberry (Rubus idaeus Muskoka)

8

Wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus-wild)

6

Swamp raspberry (Rubus chamaemorus-wild)

6, 6

North blackberry (Rubus arcticus Pima and MESP)

31

Source
1st Hakkinen SH, Karenlampi SO, Heinonen IM, Mykkanen HM, Torronen AR., Content of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and edible berries in 25, J Agric Food Chem 1999, (6) :2274-9.

Author: MPG71

            

 

 

 

 

 

SASTAV NAMIRNICA

M voće i povrće

Namirnice koje sadrže u većoj meri sledeće hranljive materije:

  • Belančevine: meso, jaja, riba, živina, divljač, mesni ekstrakti, sušene mahunarke-pasulj, grašak, sočivo, sirevi, mleko, mlečni proizvodi;
  • Ugljeni hidrati: žitarice i njihovi proizvodi, jela od brašna, šećer i poslastice;
  • Masti: maslo, slanina, orasi, čokolada, oraščići, kikiriki, topljeni masni sir, svinjetina, šunka, kobasica, govedina;
  • Natrijum-hlorid: (kuhinjska so), meso, dimljeno meso, mesni ekstrakti, supe od mesa, morska riba, mahunarke, sirevi, kravlje mljeko i mlečni proizvodi, hleb;
  • Holesterol: žumence, mozak, jetra, bubrezi, kožura, majonez;
  • Kalcijum: kravlje mleko, sirevi, jaja, kupus, kelj, sočivo, pasulj, grašak, jagode, breskva;
  • Fosforna kiselina: žitarice, riba, mahunarke, meso, hleb, spanać, salate, žumance;
  • Celuloza: sve biljne namirnice.

Namirnice koje sadrže razne minerale

  • Jod: morska riba, jaja;
  • Kalijum: krompir, mleko, meso, mahunarke, voće;
  • Magnezijum: žitarice, sveže zelene mahunarke;
  • Gvoždje: žumance, jetra, zob, sočivo, spanać, celer, špargle;
  • Natrijum: boranija, kupus, kelj, pirinač, beli luk, crni luk, jagode, gljive, riba.

Namirnice koje sadrže u manjoj meri hranljive materije

  • Belančevine; sveže mahunarke, voće, povrće, krompir, pirinač, zob, sva vrsta pića, vino, pivo;
  • Ugljeni hidrati: meso, divljač, riba, jaja, gljive, celer, spanać, kupus, salata, paradajz, mahunarke;
  • Masti:voće, povrće, piletina;
  • Natrijum hlorid: voće, smokve, urme, groždje, breskve, jagode, trešnje, banane;
  • Holesterol: obrano mleko, biljne namirnice, žitarice, mahunarke, voće, salate;
  • Kalcijum: meso, mozak, riba, krompir, jabuke, kruške, šljive, trešnje, vino, pivo.

Izvor: Savetovaliste

HEMIJSKI SASTAV KOZJEG MLEKA

Komponenta

Koncentracija

Ukupna suva materija %

12,97

 Kilokalorije
Kilodžuli

69
288

Proteini, %

3,56

Lipidi,  %

4,14

Ugljenihidrati, %

4,45

Pepeo, %

0,82

Kalcijum, mg

134

Gvožđe, mg

0,05

Magnezijum, mg

14

Fosfor, mg

111

Kalijum, mg

204

Natrijum, mg

50

Zinc, mg

0,30

Tiamin, mcg

40

Riboflavin, mg

0,138

Niacin, mg

0,277

Pantoteniska kiselina, mg

0,310

Vitamin B6, mcg

60

Folacin, mcg

1

Vitamin B12, mcg

0,065

Vitamin A, mcg

44

Vitamin D, mcg

0,11

Vitamin E, mg

0,03

Askorbinska kiselina, mg

1,29

 Izvor

http://www.dairyforall.com

Uredio: MPG71


NUTRIENTS AND COMPOSITION OF GOAT MILK

Constituents

Goat milk

Total solid %

12.97

Energy   Kilocalories
Kilojoules

69
288

Protein %

3.56

Lipid %

4.14

Carbohydrate %

4.45

Ash %

0.82

Calcium (mg)

134

Iron (mg)

0.05

Magnesium (mg)

14

Phosphorous (mg)

111

Potassium (mg)

204

Sodium (mg)

50

Zinc (mg)

0.30

Ascorbic acid (mg)

1.29

Thiamine (mcg)

40

Riboflavin (mg)

0.138

Niacin (mg)

0.277

Pantothenic acid

0.310

Vitamin B6 (mcg)

60

Folacin (mcg)

1

Vitamin B12 (mcg)

0.065

Vitamin A (mcg)

44

Vitamin D (mcg)

0.11

Vitamin E (mg)

0.03

 Izvor

http://www.dairyforall.com

Uredio: MPG71

POLYPHENOLS IN FRUITS AND GRAPE

Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Michx) – Dominant chokeberry anthocyanins are 3-galactoside cianidin and cianidin 3-arabinoside. The concentration of flavonols in chokeberry exceed 71 mg / g fresh weight. Flavanones eriodictyol 7-O-β-glucuronide along with rare flavonol quercetin 3-vicianosidom and quercetin 3-robinobiosidom quercetin glycosides and other proven in chokeberry Slimestad research associates and the 2005th.

Avocado (Persea americana Mill) - Avocado is a tropical fruit, rich in polyphenolic compounds such as:   brown, hlorogenska, coumarin acid, catechin, epicatechin.

Banana (Musa acuminata) - This fruit proved the presence of tannin, gallic acid, catechin, anthocyanins-3-rutinoside, cianidin-3-rutinoside, petunidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-rutinoside and malvidin-3-rutinoside.

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L) – Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, whose amount varies from 300-600 mg/100g. Effect on improving the nutritional value of foods by preventing oxidation of lipids and proteins of food products.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpa L) - Cranberries are anthocyans: cianidin-3-gala tozid, cianidin-3-glucozid and cianidin-3-arabinoside. Fresh cranberries, juice, frozen or dried as a natural antibiotic.

Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) - Black currant contains 1.253 to 6.166 mg / g total anthocyanins. Proven pigments are Delphinidin-glucozid, Delphinidin-rutinosid, cianidin-glucozid, cianidin-rutinoside.

Blood orange (Citrus sinensis L.) - The species of the genus Citrus Flavanones characteristic polyphenols, primarily hesperetin and naringinenin in the form of glycosides.

Goji (Lycium barbarum L) - Goji contains bioflavonoids, anthocyanins, lutein. The presence of these components and their relationship led to the fruit on top of the ORAC scale (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity – Scale, which measures the antioxidant capacity or antioxidant value of foods). According to this scale goji berries have 25 300 units, and these first fruits, which are normally considered a strong antioxidant, pomegranate is the „only“ 12 500 units.

Grapes (Vitis vinifera L) - varieties of grapes are a rich source of flavonoids, polyphenols, 70% is located in the seed, and about 30% in the skin. Polyphenols have been identified in the cluster: flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin), procijanidini, tannins, flavonols (quercetin, myricetin), antocijanidini. The content of anthocyanins in grapes varies from 12 to 30 mg / g.

Guava (Psidium guajava L) - polyphenolic compounds of guava are sumorin-3-O-liksozid, morin-3-O-arabinoside, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, leukoantocijanidin, ellagic acid.

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev.) - The results showed that the predominant phenolic compound kiwi hidroksicimetna acid, flavonols and flavan 3-ol epicatechin.

Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) - The blackberry extract proved the following anthocyanins: cijanidin-3-glucoside, cijanidin-3-galactoside, cijanidin-3-arabinose, pelargonidin-3-glucoside; cijanidin-3-ksiluloza; malvidin-3- glucoside. Cijanidin-3-glucoside is the dominant pigment in berries.

Longan (Euphoria longan Lamk) - Longan is an exotic fruit, which contains polyphenolic compounds. Dominant polyphenolic compounds were: gallic and ellagic acid and elagintanin.

Raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L) – Malina is a highly valuable nutritionally because of the rich content of various antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of raspberries is 50% higher antioxidant activity than strawberries, 10 times higher than the tomatoes and 3 times higher than the kiwi. About 25% belongs to the polyphenol antioxidant activity such as quercetin, kaempferol, cijanidin-3-glukozilrutinozid, cijanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin glycoside. These compounds give intense red raspberry.

Mango (Mangifera indica L) - According to the results of research flavonols manga are dominant Q 3-galactozid (22.1 mg / kgs), Q 3-glucozid (16 mg / kg) and Q 3-arabinoside (5 mg / kg.)

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) - This fruit is referred to as medicinal fruit of the gods. Mangosteen contains a large group of xanthones, flavonoids with strong antioxidant activity. Of the 200 known xanthones nearly 50 are found in mangosteen. The main fruit of this xanthones are alpha-, beta-, gamma-and beta-methoxy-mangostin. Quantitative dominantain alpha-mangostin. Mangosteen contains, in addition to xanthones and anthocyanins, stilbene and tannins. The concentration of total anthocyanins in the mangosteen is 25.9 to 63.9 mg/100g.

Olive (Olea europaea) – Olives contain polyphenols hydroxytyrosol and sip a tea acid. HPLC in olive oil was confirmed in the presence of low concentrations hidrokisitirozila, tirozila, lignans. GC-MS method proved the presence of vanilla acid, p-hidrokisbenzojeve, p-coumarin, o-coumarin acid.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) - Contains elagintanin 3,3 ‘-di-O-metilelaginsku acid, 3,3′, 4′-tri-O – metilelaginsku acid phenethyl-rutinoside. New dimerik gallic acid, named after humarain, was isolated from the stem bark of pomegranate.

Noni (Morinda citrifolia L ) - The fruit of the noni fruit belongs to a group of 80 medicinal plants, which are today considered the most effective medicinal plant group on the planet. This tropical fruits contain bioflavonoids catechin and epicatechin-, tannins.

Papaya (Carica papaya L) – Papaya contains myrcene, ocimen, phellandrene, terpinene, a dried leaf 0.25 mg / g tea acids, 0.33 mg / g p-kuumarinske acid and 0.11 mg / g protokatehinske kiselinue. The concentration of quercetin was kempferola and 0.04 mg / g.

Plum (Prunus domestica L) – Color plum fruit epidermis may be the green-yellow through red and blue, different shades of blue to blue-violet. Shades of blue, red and blue colors and plavoljubičaste are conditioned by the type and amount of anthocyanins . Today is one of the goals of breeding to create new varieties of plums with dark fruit epidermis. Plums contain different varieties cijanidin-3-glucoside and cijanidin-3-rutinoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside. Cevallos-Casals et al., (2002) found that the content of anthocyanins in the fruit selection of 13 plums ranged from 44.1 to 231.29 mg / 100 g mezokarpa fresh, calculated on cijanidin-3-glucoside.

The grapevine leaf (Vitis vinifera L) - vine leaves can be considered a good source of polyphenolic compounds . The research results confirm that the extracts of leaves and vines extremely rich phenolic compounds. HPLC analysis showed the presence of flavonoid and stilbene. Among the polyphenols from the group identified as stilbene resveratrol monomers (cis-and trans-resveratrol) and resveratrol derivatives (astringin and piceid / isorhapontin).

Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) - Cherries are a rich source of atocijana. The concentration of these pigments depends on the variety, cultivation methods, climate, climate and other factors.

Author: MPG71

CONCENTRATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRESH NATURAL HONEY

E lements

Mean

mg g-1

P

28.80

Fe

3.91

Al

2.57

Mn

12.33

Zn

1.08

Cu

12.19

Ca

56.35

Mg

23.38

To

25.56

K

482.75

Source

Cantarelli, MAA Pellerano, RGB Marchevsky, EJB Camino, JMA,

QUALITY OF HONEY FROM ARGENTINA: STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TRACE ELEMENTS The Journal of the Argentine Chemical Society – Vol. 96 – N ° (1-2), 33-41 (2008)

Edited by: MPG71

HROMONES

The last few decades, many studies are done polyphenolic compounds, hormones because of their biological and pharmacological activities. Hromones are abundant in the plant world from algae to sawmills. To date, hromones found in the nature of the 2-metilderivati ​​and therefore are classified as C 6-C 4compounds. Peucenin, eugenitol isoeugenitol and hormones are the most common in nature (and Hinreiner Geissman, 1952).

From the oil of clove is extracted colorless, crystalline substance known as eugenin (Meijer and Schmid, 2004). Crossosoma bigelovii plants extract were isolated and well-known hromones eugenin noreugenin (Klausmeyer et al., 2009).

Tuntuwachwuttikul et al. (2006) have isolated four new hormones from plants and to perforate Harrisonia: perforamone A, B, C and D in addition to already known: saikohromona, greveihromenola, eugenina.

The two hromones were isolated from Peperomia vulcanica. These are 5-hydroxy-2-(14′-(E)-nonadekenil) hormones (1) and 5-hydroxy-2-[12'-(3 ", 4"-metilenedioksifenil-dodekanil] hormones (2) (Mbah et al., 2002). Research in the Study Phytochemicals De Carvalho et al. (2005) have resulted in the identification of ten new hormones in leaves of Licania arianeae as follows: four 5,7-dihydroxy-2-alkilhromona, four 5,7-dihydroxy -6-chloro-2-alkilhromona and two 5,7-dihydroxy-6 ,8-dichloro-2-alkilhromona.

Bondge (2009) found that hormones in a number of plants involved in the growth cycle and encourage the consumption of oxygen in the tissues. They are photochemically very active (Kumar and Yusuf, 2006).

References:

1.  Bondge SP, A facile synthesis of new 6-acetamido-3-aroyl-2-styryl chromones, Indian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 48B, 2009, 1435-1437

2.  De Carvalho MG, Lucilene Faustina De Oliveira Cndido, Patrcia Miranda Da Costa, Victor Marcos Rumjanek, Chromones arianeae from Licania (Chrysobalanaceae), Natural Product Research, Volume 19, 2005, pages 7-12

3.  TA Geissman and Elly Hinreiner, Theories of the Biogenesis of Flavonoid Compounds (Part I), Botanical Review, Vol. 18, no. 2, 1952

4.  Klausmeyer P., Qin Zhou, Dominic A. Scudiero, Badarch Uranchimeg, Giovanni Melillo, John H. Cardellini, II, Robert H. Shoemaker, Ching-jer Changand Thomas G. McCloud, cytotoxic and HIF-1α Inhibitory Compounds from Crossosoma bigelovii, J. Nat. Prod., 2009, 72 (5), pp 805-812

5.  Kumar R. and M. Yusuf, Chromones and bischromones: an account of photoinduced reactions, ARKIVOC 2006 (ix) 239-264, ISSN 1424-6376 Page 239

6.  Mbah J. Maguerite HK Tchuendem, Pierre Tane and Olov Sterner, Twochromones from Peperomia vulcanica, Phytochemistry, Volume 60, Issue 8, August 2002, Pages 799-801

7.  Meijer Th. M., H. Schmid, Über die des Konstitution Eugenins, Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 31 Issue 6, Pages 1603 to 1607, 2004

8.  Tuntuwachwuttikul P. Phansa P. Pootaeng-On Y. and Taylor W, Chromones from the Branches of Harrisonia perforate, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 54 (1) 44-47 (2006)

Author: MPG71

POLYPHENOLS IN FOOD

Today it is considered that the day you take in about 1 g of flavonoids . In the Far East countries consuming large amounts of tea increases the intake of flavonoids in the body. Beyond the question how many flavonoids daily replenished with food, there is the question of their absorption and bioavailability in the body, in this respect and concentration of these compounds in the blood. Add to that the fact that flavonoids have an affinity for binding with proteins, and thus the plasma proteins, the question of the concentration of flavonoids in the blood becomes more complex. Most research work related to the biological effects of these compounds in vitro whereby the excessive concentration of flavonoids, which can not be achieved in real terms in the body. In addition, numerous studies have shown rapid metabolism of flavonoids. Therefore their diet should be allocated to as many (about 5) meals a day. It is recommended that the food is varied, different colors so as to be representative of all groups of bioactive substances for the body.

The amount of polyphenols , which are consumed per day were incomplete and were obtained from the analysis of major aglikona (after hydrolysis of their glycosides and esters) in food.

Kuhnau in 1976. was calculated that the intake of flavonoids in the body through food in America, about 1 g / day. An entry consists of 16% flavonols, flavones and Flavanones, 17% anthocyanins, catechins 20% and 45% biflavona. It was found that flavonols entries 20-25 mg / day in the U.S. and Denmark.

In Italy, the values ​​range from 5 to 125 mg / day, with a mean value of 35 mg / day (Piette, 1996).

In the Netherlands the average intake of flavonols and flavones 23 mg / day, and the main sources are tea, onions and apples. Daily consumption of anthocyanins in Finland, a country where eating is used a lot of tea, citrus fruits, berries, 82 – 200 mg. Good sources of these phenolic compounds are in the Netherlands: tea 48%, 29% onions, apples 7%, 16% other sources, and in Finland 25% of drinks (tea dominant), 67% fruit (predominantly citrus fruits), 3% of berries, 5% other sources (Heinonen, 2001).

Literature

1.  Heinonen, M.: Anthocyanins as dietary antioxidants. In: Natural antioxidants and anticarcinogens in food, and disease (Nahda), Kuopion yliopisto, Finland, Helsinki, 25 (2001).

2.  Kuhnau, J. (1976) The flavanoids. A class of semi-essential food components: their role in human nutrition, World Rev.Nutr.Diet., 24, 117-191.

3.  Piette, P., Simonetti, P., Rogge, C.: Dietary flavonoids and oxidative stress. In: Kumpulainen JT, Salonen JT: Natural antioxidants and food quality in atherosclerosis and cancer prevention, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 249-255 (1996).

Author: MPG71